/kawn stahn"tsah/, n.
a seaport in SE Romania, on the Black Sea. 279,308.

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Turkish Kustenja ancient Constantiana or Tomis

City (pop., 2002 est.: 715,200), chief seaport of Romania.

The first known settlement in the area was at the ancient city of Tomis, founded in the 7th century BC by the Greeks. Romans annexed the region in the 1st century BC; Ovid was exiled there in AD 9–17. In the 4th century Tomis was reconstructed by Constantine the Great and renamed Constantiana. It was subject to numerous invasions from the 6th century on, and it declined following the Turkish conquest in the early 15th century. Its modern development as an industrial, trading, and cultural centre dates from its return to Romania in 1878.

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 city, capital of Constanţa judeţ (county), southeastern Romania, on the Black Sea. Situated about 125 miles (200 km) east of Bucharest, it is the country's principal seaport. Since 1960 a coastal conurbation stretching from Năvodari to Mangalia, including the principal Black Sea resort, Mamaia (5 miles [8 km] north), has been administered from Constanţa.

      The first record of a settlement is at the ancient city of Tomis, founded in the 7th century BC by Greek settlers from Miletus in Anatolia. The Romans annexed the region—known to them as Scythia Minor—in the 1st century BC; and in the 4th century AD Tomis was reconstructed by Constantine the Great and renamed Constantiana. It was the place of exile of the Roman poet Ovid in AD 9–17. Between the 6th century and the Turkish conquest in the early 15th century, the entire region was subject to invasions by the Goths, Huns, Avars, Gepidae, and others; under the Turks, Constanţa (called Köstence, Küstenge, or Köstendje) declined to a village of 2,000. Its modern development as an industrial and trading centre dates from the return of the region to Romania in 1878.

      Constanţa is a centre of art and culture, with several museums and theatres. The archaeological museum has an important collection, and among Roman remains is a large mosaic tile floor. The port and dock facilities are modern and are connected by pipeline from the oil fields around Ploieşti. A busy Black Sea port, Constanţa has regular services to Ukraine, Russia, Turkey, and other nearby countries and to ports on the Mediterranean. Industrial products include pulp and paper and prefabricated concrete. It is also a food-processing centre. Pop. (2007 est.) 304,279.

      judeţ (county), southeastern Romania, bounded by Bulgaria on the south. The Black Sea lies to the east, and the northward-draining Danube River delimits the county's western border. Constanţa judeţ, consisting mostly of lowlands, contains several lakes. Constanţa city, Romania's principal seaport, is the county seat. Agricultural activities include livestock raising and cereal and vineyard cultivation. Manufactured products of Constanţa and other towns in the county include machinery, metal products, building materials, textiles, and paper. Archaeological museums, containing artifacts from the Neolithic period and from Greek and Roman occupations, are located in Eforie Sud and Mangalia. Mangalia was built on the ruins of an ancient Greek city that was founded in the 6th century BC. A 15th-century Turkish mosque and an ancient tomb (4th century AD) are situated in Mangalia. Three churches, built one on top of another, and underground passages with 10th-century Cyrillic inscriptions were discovered in Murfatlar. The town also has a horticultural and viticultural research station. A Byzantine city (10th century) was excavated on an island in the Danube River near Ostrov. Adamclisi town is known for the Tropaeum Trajani monument that was built by the Romans after their victory over the Dacians (AD 109). Eforie Nord resort, one of several Black Sea resorts in the county, is situated on a red granite and limestone cliff and has an outdoor theatre. A marine biological station (1926) is located in Agigea. Highway and railway connections extend from Constanţa city in various directions, and an airport is located in Mihail Kogălniceanu. Area 2,730 square miles (7,071 square km). Pop. (2007 est.) 718,330.

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Universalium. 2010.

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