Chapultepec

/cheuh pul"teuh pek'/; Sp. /chah poohl'te pek"/, n.
a fortress and military school at the outskirts of Mexico City: captured by U.S. forces (1847) in the Mexican War; now a park.

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Rocky hill, southwest of Mexico City, Mexico.

The Aztecs fortified it and built a religious centre and a residence for their rulers in the early 14th century. The Spanish conquistadores built a chapel in 1554, and in the 1780s the Spanish viceroys constructed a summer palace there that later became the home of the National Military Academy (1841). The hill was captured by a U.S. assault (1847) in the Mexican War. In the 1860s Mexico's Emperor Maximilian rebuilt the castle; it remained the official residence of Mexican presidents until 1940, when it was converted into a museum.

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Nahuatl“Hill of the Grasshopper”
 rocky hill about 200 feet (60 metres) high on the western edge of Mexico City that has long played a prominent role in the history of Mexico. The Aztecs fortified the hill but were expelled by neighbouring peoples; after their consolidation of power in the valley of Mexico about 1325, they built a religious centre and a residence for Aztec rulers on it. After the Spanish conquest (1521), a chapel was built there in 1554; in the 1780s the Spanish viceroys began the construction of a summer palace on the site, which became the home of the National Military Academy in 1841. In the 1860s Mexico's emperor Maximilian rebuilt the castle; it remained the official residence of the presidents of Mexico until 1940, when it was converted into a museum. Maximilian also beautified the surrounding park, today a principal cultural and recreational centre of the city. Among its features are several museums, including the world-famous Museo Nacional de Antropología, designed by Pedro Ramírez Vázquez and built in 1963–64.

      Chapultepec was the scene of the last-ditch Mexican resistance in the war between Mexico and the United States (1846–48). U.S. forces under General Winfield Scott, having seized Veracruz on the Gulf of Mexico, advanced on the capital. Scott defeated the Mexicans at the suburban bridgehead of Churubusco on Aug. 20, 1847, and continued toward Mexico City; in his path was the hill of Chapultepec, with approximately 5,000 defenders, including cadets from Mexico's military academy. After heavy artillery bombardment on September 12 failed to force their withdrawal, Scott's forces attacked the next morning. The defenders resisted in fierce hand-to-hand combat before capitulating. Several cadets, known in Mexican history as Los Niños Héroes, were killed, one of them, it is said, by leaping from the castle walls, holding the flag lest it be captured. During the following night, Mexican forces were withdrawn, and Scott entered the city on September 14, thus concluding the significant military operations of the war.

      In March 1945 all the countries of the Western Hemisphere, except Argentina, sent representatives to the Chapultepec Conference to discuss hemispheric security. An economic charter for the Americas was adopted, as was the Act of Chapultepec, which pledged the signatory nations to take collective action in the event of aggression from within or outside of the Americas against one of their number.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Chapultepec — (spr. tsch ), Schloß mit prachtvoller Aussicht dicht bei Mexiko, mit dem es durch eine schöne Allee verbunden ist. 1785 an der Stelle eines Palastes Montezumas als Residenz der spanischen Vizekönige errichtet, von Kaiser Maximilian verschönert;… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Chapultepec — es una montaña ubicada en el centro de la Ciudad de México, rodeada de un parque que comprende una zona boscosa, lagos y manantiales, y actualmente, instalaciones para el uso del tiempo libre (juegos mecánicos, museos, teatros, auditorios y un… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Chapultepec — [chə pool′tə pek΄, chəpul′tə pek΄] [Nahuatl, lit., grasshopper hill] a rocky hill in Mexico City: captured (Sept., 1847) in an American assault led by Gen. Winfield Scott in the Mexican War …   English World dictionary

  • Chapultepec — Este artículo o sección necesita referencias que aparezcan en una publicación acreditada, como revistas especializadas, monografías, prensa diaria o páginas de Internet fidedignas. Puedes añadirlas así o avisar …   Wikipedia Español

  • Chapultepec — For the municipality, see Chapultepec, Mexico. Overlooking the Lago Menor towards Polanco. Chapultepec Park, more commonly called the Bosque de Chapultepec (Chapultepec Forest) in Mexico City, is the largest city park in Latin America, measuring… …   Wikipedia

  • Chapultepec — Lago Chapultepec Blick vom Schloss auf da …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Chapultepec — Castillo de Chapultepec et le monument des enfants héros …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Chapultepec — Original name in latin Chapultepec Name in other language Chapultepec, San Miguel Chapultepec State code MX Continent/City America/Mexico City longitude 19.20159 latitude 99.56187 altitude 2596 Population 5828 Date 2012 12 05 …   Cities with a population over 1000 database

  • Chapultepec — Chapultepẹc   [tʃ ], Schloss (heute Museum) und Park in der Stadt Mexiko, Ort einer interamerikanischen Konferenz (21. 2. 8. 3. 1945), auf der 21 Staaten den Akt von Chapultepec beschlossen: Jeder Angriff auf einen der Unterzeichnerstaaten gilt… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Chapultepec — Admin ASC 2 Code Orig. name Chapultepec Country and Admin Code MX.15.027 MX …   World countries Adminstrative division ASC I-II

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