caisson

caissoned, adj.
/kay"seuhn, -son/, n.
1. a structure used in underwater work, consisting of an airtight chamber, open at the bottom and containing air under sufficient pressure to exclude the water.
2. a boatlike structure used as a gate for a dock or the like.
3. Naut.
a. Also called camel, pontoon. a float for raising a sunken vessel, sunk beside the vessel, made fast to it, and then pumped out to make it buoyant.
b. a watertight structure built against a damaged area of a hull to render the hull watertight; cofferdam.
4. a two-wheeled wagon, used for carrying artillery ammunition.
5. an ammunition chest.
6. a wooden chest containing bombs or explosives, used formerly as a mine.
7. Archit. coffer (def. 4).
[1695-1705; < F, MF < OPr, equiv. to caissa box (see CASE2) + -on aug. suffix]

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In engineering, a type of foundation most commonly used underwater for a bridge, but sometimes used in building construction.

It is a large hollow structure that is sunk down through the earth by workers excavating from inside it; ultimately it becomes a permanent part of the pier. There are three types: the open caisson, open at both top and bottom; the box caisson, closed at the bottom; and the pneumatic caisson, with an airtight chamber to accommodate submerged workers. Caisson columns, typically 2 ft (0.6 m) or more in diameter, may be used as an alternative to bearing piles. A round hole is dug or bored to a stable layer of earth and temporarily supported by a steel shell, then filled with concrete poured around a cage of reinforcing bars.

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▪ sea works
      in engineering, boxlike structure used in construction work underwater or as a foundation. It is usually rectangular or circular in plan and may be tens of metres in diameter.

      A box caisson, open at the top and closed at the bottom, is usually constructed on land, then launched, floated to position, and sunk onto a previously prepared foundation, leaving its upper edge above water level. It serves as a suitable shell for a pier, seawall, breakwater, jetty, or similar work, remaining permanently in place on the sea bottom.

      An open caisson, open at both the bottom and the top, is fitted with a cutting bottom edge, which facilitates sinking through soft material while excavation is carried out inside through a honeycomb of large pipes, or dredging wells. As excavating proceeds and the caisson sinks, additional sections are added to the shaft above. This process is continued until the caisson has sunk to the required depth. A floor, usually of concrete, is laid to provide a bottom seal. The dredging wells can then be filled with concrete to complete the structure.

      Pneumatic caissons are similar to open caissons except that they are provided with airtight bulkheads above the cutting edge. The space between the bulkhead and cutting edge, called the working chamber, is pressurized to the extent necessary to control the inflow of soil and water; thus the excavating can be performed by workmen operating in the working chamber at the bottom of the caisson.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • caisson — [ kɛsɔ̃ ] n. m. • 1751; caixon 1418; it. cassone « grande caisse », avec infl. de caisse 1 ♦ Autrefois, Grande caisse montée sur roues, utilisée pour les transports de munitions, de vivres. 2 ♦ Caisse métallique pleine d air permettant d… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Caisson — (French for box ) may refer to:* Caisson (Asian architecture), a spider web ceiling * Caisson (engineering), a sealed underwater structure * Caisson (military), a two wheeled cart carrying ammunition * Caisson (pen name), of Edward Sperling *… …   Wikipedia

  • Caisson — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda El término caisson puede referirse: a Edward Sperling, cuyo seudónimo era Caisson; a un pozo de cimentación, tipo de cimentación profunda, cuyo nombre en francés es caisson; al síndrome de descompresión, alteración… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Caisson — Cais son, n. [F., fr. caisse, case, chest. See 1st {Case}.] 1. (Mil.) (a) A chest to hold ammunition. (b) A four wheeled carriage for conveying ammunition, consisting of two parts, a body and a limber. In light field batteries there is one… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • caisson — (n.) 1704, from Fr. caisson ammunition wagon, box, crate, from M.Fr. caisson large box (16c.), from It. cassone, augmentive form of cassa a chest, from L. capsa a box (see CASE (Cf. case) (n.2)) …   Etymology dictionary

  • Caisson — (fr., spr. Kässong), 1) Kasten, Casette; 2) Pulverwagen; 3) (C. quarrée, spr. K. karreh, Bauk.), so v.w. Cassette 2) …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Caisson — (franz., spr. käßóng), Kasten ohne Boden aus Eisen oder Holz, mittels dessen man bei Gründungen unter Wasser bis zum tragfähigen Baugrund hinabdringt, und worin das Grundmauerwerk ausgeführt wird (s. Grundbau und Felssprengung) …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Caisson — hat im Grundbau zweifache Bedeutung. Man versteht darunter: 1. Schwimmkasten mit Boden, auch Senkkasten oder Senkschiff genannt; 2. die wasserfreie Arbeitskammer, die bei mittels Preßluft zu senkendem Mauerwerk unter letzterem hergestellt und… …   Lexikon der gesamten Technik

  • Caisson — (frz., spr. kässóng), Kammer aus Eisen, dient bei der Preßluftgründung als Arbeitsstätte unter Wasser. Caissonkrankheit, eine Reihe von krankhaften Erscheinungen, die zuweilen bei Arbeitern in C. durch den hohen Luftdruck bei zu raschem Übergang… …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • caisson — Caisson. s. m. Grande caisse qui sert ordinairement pour porter les vivres à l armée. Les caissons de l artillerie. les caissons des vivres. les caissons des Munitionnaires …   Dictionnaire de l'Académie française

  • caisson — [kā′sən, kā′sän΄] n. [Fr < It cassone < cassa, a chest < L capsa, a box, CASE2] 1. a chest for holding ammunition 2. a two wheeled wagon for transporting ammunition 3. a watertight enclosure inside which underwater construction work can… …   English World dictionary

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