barotrauma

/bar'euh trow"meuh, -traw"-/, n., pl. barotraumata /-meuh teuh/, barotraumas. Pathol.
injury of certain organs, esp. the ear, due to a change in the atmospheric pressure. Cf. aerotitis media.
[BARO- + TRAUMA]

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      any of several injuries arising from changes in pressure upon the body. Humans are adapted to live at an atmospheric pressure of 760 mm of mercury (the pressure at sea level), which differs from pressures experienced in underwater environments and in the upper atmospheres of space. Most body tissue is either solid or liquid and remains virtually unaffected by pressure changes; in certain cavities of the body, however, such as the ears (ear, human), sinuses (sinus), lungs (lung), and intestines (intestine), there are air pockets that either expand or contract in response to changes in pressure. Abrupt expansion or contraction of closed internal air spaces can injure or rupture surrounding tissues, such as the eardrum.

      A fatal form of barotrauma can occur in submariners and divers. For example, if a person in a deeply submerged submarine rapidly surfaces without exhaling during the ascent, sudden expansion of air trapped within the thorax can burst one or both lungs. Another form of barotrauma may occur during mechanical ventilation for respiratory failure. Air pumped into the chest by the machine can overdistend and rupture a diseased portion of the lung. Subsequent breaths delivered by the ventilator are then driven into the mediastinum (the space between the lungs), the pleural spaces, or under the skin of the neck, face, and torso, causing subcutaneous emphysema (the trapping of air under the skin or in tissues).

Michael F. Beers
 

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Barotrauma — Barotrauma, otitic Barotrauma, sinus Classification and external resources ICD 10 T70.0, T70.1 ICD 9 …   Wikipedia

  • barotrauma — m. traumat. Toda lesión provocada por una variación de la presión, tanto por su aumento como por su disminución. El sistema nervioso, el oído y los senos frontales y maxilares son los órganos que se ven más afectados. Medical Dictionary. 2011 …   Diccionario médico

  • Barotrauma — (n) eng barotrauma …   Arbeitssicherheit und Gesundheitsschutz Glossar

  • barotrauma — barotràuma ž DEFINICIJA pat. ukupnost pojava uzrokovanih razlikama atmosferskog ili podvodnog tlaka; kemijske, fizičke i biološke pojave u organizmu izloženom tlaku ETIMOLOGIJA baro + v. trauma …   Hrvatski jezični portal

  • Barotrauma — Klassifikation nach ICD 10 T70.0 Barotrauma, Ohr T70.1 Barotrauma, Nasennebenhöhlen T70.2 …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • barotrauma — An injury caused by expansion or contraction of trapped gases in the body resulting from changes in pressure. It can lead to pain in the ears (otitic barotrauma), the sinuses (sinus baro trauma), and the intestines. One example of barotruauma is… …   Aviation dictionary

  • Barotrauma — Druckverletzung * * * Barotrauma,   Medizin: Bezeichnung für Gesundheitsstörungen durch Unter oder Überdruck in lufthaltigen Körperhöhlen durch schnellen Luftdruckwechsel beim Tauchen oder Fliegen; führt z. B. im Mittelohr bis zum Druckausgleich… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • barotrauma — noun Date: 1937 injury of a body part or organ as a result of changes in barometric pressure …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • barotrauma — an injury that results from rapid or extreme changes in pressure. Found in fishes pulled from depths rapidly or in humans where may simply be a discomfort in the ear based on differing pressures on either side of the ear drum …   Dictionary of ichthyology

  • barotrauma — noun Damage to body tissue caused by a difference in pressure between an air space in or near the body and the surrounding air …   Wiktionary

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