- —Bactrian, adj., n./bak"tree euh/, n.an ancient country in W Asia, between the Oxus River and the Hindu Kush Mountains. Cap.: Bactra.
* * *Ancient country, Central Asia.It was situated between the Hindu Kush and the Amu Darya in parts of modern Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan. Its capital was the city of Bactra. From the 6th century BC it was controlled by the Achaemenian dynasty; conquered by Alexander the Great, the area was ruled after his death (323 BC) by the Seleucid dynasty and for a time (с 250 BC) formed an independent kingdom. It was long important as a crossroads for overland trade and as a meeting place for various religious and artistic traditions. The area ultimately came under Muslim control in the 7th century AD.
* * *▪ ancient country, Central Asiaalso called Bactriana or Zariaspaancient country lying between the mountains of the Hindu Kush and the Amu Darya (ancient Oxus River) in what is now part of Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan. Bactria was especially important between about 600 BC and about AD 600, serving for much of that time as a meeting place not only for overland trade between East and West but also for the crosscurrents of religious and artistic ideas. Bactria's capital was Bactra, also called Bactra-Zariaspa (modern Balkh, Afghanistan). Bactria was a fertile country, and a profusion of mounds and abandoned water channels testifies to its ancient prosperity.The first written records of Bactria are Achaemenian. The region was probably subdued by Cyrus II the Great in the 6th century BC and remained an Achaemenian province for the next 200 years. When Alexander the Great defeated Darius III, the Bactrian satrap, Bessus, tried unsuccessfully to organize resistance in the East. Upon the death of Alexander (323 BC) Bactria passed under the rule of Seleucus I Nicator.About 250 BC either Diodotus (Diodotus I), the Seleucid satrap of Bactria, or his son of the same name founded an independent kingdom. The Seleucid king Antiochus III the Great defeated their successor, the usurper Euthydemus, but continued to recognize his independence. Euthydemus's successors advanced into the Hindu Kush and northwestern India, where they established the Indo-Greek branch of the kingdom. At the height of their power they ruled almost all of what is now Afghanistan, parts of Central Asia, and a large area in Pakistan. Consequently, Hellenistic influence on the culture of Central Asia and northwestern India has been considerable. Hellenistic traditions are especially evident in art, architecture, coinage, and script.Sometime before 128 BC Greek rule north of the Hindu Kush was challenged by a people known to the Chinese as the Yuezhi. By 128 BC the Greeks had become Yuezhi tributaries, and soon afterward the Yuezhi occupied Bactria. They probably were an Iranian people and included the Tocharoi, whose name was subsequently applied to the whole area (Tocharian kingdom). In the 1st century AD the new rulers of Bactria extended their rule into northwestern India; that movement is associated with a group known as the Kushāns, under whom the country became a centre of Buddhism. In the latter half of the 4th century the Hephthalites (originally a tribe of the Yuezhi) settled in Bactria, and for almost two centuries they engaged in wars with the Sāsānians. In AD 565 the western Turks overthrew the Hephthalites (Hephthalite) and ruled the area until the Muslim conquest in the middle of the 7th century.
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Bactria — [bak′trē ə] ancient country between the Hindu Kush & the Oxus River in what is now NE Afghanistan (fl. 250 130 B.C. ) Bactrian adj., n … English World dictionary
Bactria — Bactrian redirects here. For the camel, see Bactrian camel. For the language, see Bactrian language .Bactria (Bactriana, Bākhtar in Farsi, also: بـلـخ (spelled: Bhalakh ) in Arabic and Indian languages, and Daxia in Chinese) is a historical… … Wikipedia
Bactria — Baktrien (griechisch Βακτριανή, persisch Bākhtar, lat. Bactria, chines. Da Xia) ist der Name einer historischen Landschaft um die Hauptstadt Baktra (das heutige Balkh im persischen Khorasan im Mittelalter und im heutigen Afghanistan), die… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Bactria — geographical name ancient country SW Asia between Hindu Kush & Oxus River capital Bactra see Balkh • Bactrian adjective or noun … New Collegiate Dictionary
Bactria — noun The ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush and the Amu Darya in the Middle East, encompassing parts of northern Afghanistan, eastern Turkmenistan, southern Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and northern Pakistan … Wiktionary
Bactria — Bac•tri•a [[t]ˈbæk tri ə[/t]] n. anh geg an ancient country in W Asia, between the Oxus River and the Hindu Kush Mountains Cap.: Bactra Bac′tri•an, adj. n … From formal English to slang
Bactria — /ˈbæktriə/ (say baktreeuh) noun an ancient country in western Asia between the Oxus River and the Hindu Kush mountains. –Bactrian, adjective, noun … Australian English dictionary
Bactria — Bactrian, adj., n. /bak tree euh/, n. an ancient country in W Asia, between the Oxus River and the Hindu Kush Mountains. Cap.: Bactra … Useful english dictionary
Bactria (satrapy) — Bactria was a satrapy of the Achaemenid Empire. When it was incorporated into the empire is unknown but it is possible that it was done under the reign of Cyrus the Great, although the first mention of Bactria comes in 520 BCE at the Behistun… … Wikipedia
Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex — The Bactria Margiana Archaeological Complex (or BMAC, also known as the Oxus civilization) is the modern archaeological designation for a Bronze Age culture of Central Asia, dated to ca. 2200 ndash;1700 BC, located in present day Turkmenistan,… … Wikipedia