atropine

/a"treuh peen', -pin/, n. Pharm.
a poisonous crystalline alkaloid, C17H23NO3, obtained from belladonna and other plants of the nightshade family, that prevents the response of various body structures to certain types of nerve stimulation: used chiefly to relieve spasms, to lessen secretions, and, topically, to dilate the pupil of the eye.
[1830-40; < NL Atrop(a) belladonna genus ( < Gk átropos; see ATROPOS) + -INE2]

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Anticholinergic drug.

A poisonous, crystalline alkaloid derived from certain nightshade plants, especially Egyptian henbane, atropine is used chiefly to dry up bodily secretions, to dilate the bronchi, to prevent excessive cardiac slowing during anesthesia, and in ophthalmology to dilate the pupil of the eye. It works by suppressing the parasympathetic nervous system. Atropine is also used as an antidote for nerve gas poisoning.

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      poisonous, crystalline substance belonging to a class of compounds known as alkaloids and used in medicine. Its chief use is in ophthalmology, in which it is applied locally to the eye (eye, human) to dilate the pupil in the examination of the retina or to break up or prevent adhesions between the lens and the iris. It gives symptomatic relief from hay fever and head colds by drying up nasal and lachrymal secretions.

      Because atropine relaxes intestinal spasms resulting from stimulation of the parasympathetic portion of the autonomic nervous system, it is prescribed in certain types of bowel distress and is included in a number of proprietary cathartics. It is used in the treatment of childhood bedwetting and is occasionally employed to relieve ureteral and biliary spasms. Atropine is no longer used as a respiratory stimulant. In the treatment of bronchial asthma to relax bronchial spasms, it has been largely replaced by epinephrine.

      Specific effects of atropine include the arrest of secretion of sweat, mucus, and saliva; inhibition of the vagus nerve, which results in an increased heart rate; dilation of the pupil and paralysis of accommodation of the lens of the eye and relaxation of bronchial, intestinal, and other smooth muscles. Central effects include excitement and delirium followed by depression and paralysis of the medulla oblongata, a region of the brain continuous with the spinal cord.

      The ubiquitousness of the effects of atropine is a distinct disadvantage in its clinical use; as a result, a number of synthetic substitutes with more specific effects have been introduced. Homatropine, for example, has a more transient action in the eye and little or no effect on the central nervous system; trasentine and syntropan, on the other hand, have the antispasmodic action of atropine without producing dilation of the pupil, dryness of the mouth, or an increase in heart rate.

      Atropine, which does not occur in appreciable amounts in nature, is derived from levohyoscyamine, a component of plants such as belladonna, henbane, thorn apple, and Scopolia, all of the family Solanaceae; the best source is Egyptian henbane (Hyoscyamus muticus). It forms a series of well-crystallized salts, of which the sulfate is principally used in medicine. Both atropine and hyoscyamine have been synthesized from tropine.

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Universalium. 2010.

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  • Atropine — At ro*pine, n. [Gr. ? inflexible; hence ? ?, one of the three Parc[ae]; a priv. + ? to turn.] (Chem.) A poisonous, white, crystallizable alkaloid, extracted from the {Atropa belladonna}, or deadly nightshade, and the {Datura Stramonium}, or thorn …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • atropine — 1836, from L. atropa deadly nightshade (from which the alkaloid poison is extracted), from Gk. atropos inflexible, also the name of one of the Fates (see ATROPOS (Cf. Atropos)) + chemical suffix INE (Cf. ine) (2) …   Etymology dictionary

  • atropine — [at′rəpin΄at′rə pēn΄, at′rəpin΄] n. [< ModL Atropa, genus name of belladonna < Gr Atropos (see ATROPOS) + INE3] a poisonous, crystalline alkaloid, C17H23NO3, obtained from belladonna and similar plants: used to relieve spasms and dilate the …   English World dictionary

  • Atropine — A drug obtained from belladonna that is administered via injection, eye drops, or in oral form to relax muscles by inhibiting nerve responses. Used to dilate the pupils and as an antispasmodic. From the Greek goddess Atropos, the oldest and… …   Medical dictionary

  • atropine — n. an antimuscarinic drug that occurs in deadly nightshade (see belladonna). Because it dilates the pupil and paralyses the ciliary muscle (see cycloplegia, mydriatic), atropine is used in eye examinations and the treatment of anterior uveitis.… …   The new mediacal dictionary

  • atropine — atropinas statusas T sritis chemija apibrėžtis Alkaloidas. formulė C₁₇H₂₃NO₃ atitikmenys: angl. atropine rus. атропин …   Chemijos terminų aiškinamasis žodynas

  • atropine — noun Etymology: German Atropin, from New Latin Atropa, genus name of belladonna, from Greek Atropos, one of the three Fates Date: 1836 a racemic mixture of hyoscyamine obtained from any of various solanaceous plants (as belladonna) and used… …   New Collegiate Dictionary

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