- Artaxerxes II
("Mnemon")died 359? B.C., king of Persia 404?-359?.
* * *▪ king of Persiaflourished late 5th and early 4th centuries BCAchaemenid king of Persia (reigned 404–359/358).He was the son and successor of Darius II and was surnamed (in Greek) Mnemon, meaning “the mindful.” When Artaxerxes took the Persian throne, the power of Athens had been broken in the Peloponnesian War (431–404), and the Greek towns across the Aegean Sea in Ionia were again subjects of the Achaemenid Empire. In 404, however, Artaxerxes lost Egypt, and in the following year his brother Cyrus The Younger began preparations for his rebellion. Although Cyrus was defeated and killed at Cunaxa (Cunaxa, Battle of) (401), the rebellion had dangerous repercussions, for it not only demonstrated the superiority of the Greek hoplites used by Cyrus but also led the Greeks to believe that Persia was vulnerable.In 400 Sparta broke openly with the Achaemenids, and during the next five years its armies achieved considerable military success in Anatolia. The Spartan navy, however, was destroyed at Cnidus (394), thereby giving the Achaemenids mastery of the Aegean. The Greek allies of Persia (Thebes, Athens, Argos, and Corinth) continued the war against Sparta, but, when it became evident that the only ones to gain from the war were the Athenians, Artaxerxes decided to conclude peace with Sparta. In 386 Athens was compelled to accept the settlement known as the King's Peace, or the Peace of Antalcidas, by which Artaxerxes decreed that all the Asiatic mainland and Cyprus were his, that Lemnos, Imbros, and Scyros were to remain Athenian dependencies, and that all the other Greek states were to receive autonomy.Elsewhere Artaxerxes met with less success. Two expeditions against Egypt (385–383 and 374) ended in complete failure, and during the same period there were continuous rebellions in Anatolia. There were also wars against the mountain tribes of Armenia and Iran.By the King's Peace the Achaemenids had become the arbiters of Greece, and in the following wars all parties applied to them for a decision in their favour. After the Theban victory of Leuctra (371), an old alliance between the Achaemenids and the Thebans was restored. Achaemenid supremacy, however, was based on Greek internal discord rather than Achaemenid strength, and, when this weakness became apparent, all the satraps (governors) of Anatolia rose in revolt (c. 366), in alliance with Athens, Sparta, and Egypt, and Artaxerxes could do little against them. The satraps, however, were divided by mutual distrust, and the rebellion was finally put down by Persia through a series of treacheries. When the reign of Artaxerxes ended, Achaemenid authority had been restored over most of the empire—more from internal rivalries and discord than from his efforts.Under Artaxerxes an important change occurred in the Persian religion (Iranian religion). The Persians apparently did not worship images of the gods until Artaxerxes set up statues of the goddess Anāhitā (Anāhiti) in various large cities. Inscriptions by all former kings named only Ahura Mazdā, but those of Artaxerxes also invoked Anāhitā and Mithra, two deities of the old popular Iranian religion that had been neglected.
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Artaxerxes II. — Artaxerxes II. (Mnemon) (persisch اردشیر Ardaschīr [ærdæˈʃiːr], altpersisch: Ŗtachschaçā; * etwa 453 v. Chr.; † 359/58 v. Chr.; ursprünglich hieß er wohl Arsakes) war von 404 v. Chr. bis zu seinem Tod persischer… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Artaxerxès II — Mnémon Titre Grand Roi Achéménide 404 – 358 Prédécesseur Darius II Successeur Artaxerxès … Wikipédia en Français
Artaxerxes II — Artaxerxès II Grands Rois Achéménides Cyrus II ( 559( 550?)/ 529( 530?)) Cambyse II ( 529/ 522) Bardiya ( 522/ 522) Darius Ier ( 522( 521?)/ 486) Xerxès Ier ( 486(485?)/ 4 … Wikipédia en Français
Artaxerxes I. — Artaxerxes I. (späterer Beiname Makrocheir, altgriech. μακρόχειρ, „Langhand“; persisch اردشیر Ardaschīr [ærdæˈʃiːr], altpersisch: Ŗtachschaçā [ɔːrtæxˈʃæçɔː]) war von 465 v. Chr. bis zu seinem Tod im Dezember 424 v. Chr. persischer… … Deutsch Wikipedia
ARTAXERXES° — (Per. Artakhshacha; Gr. Artaxerxes; Heb. and Aram. אַרְתַּחְשַׁשְׂתְּא and אַרְתַּחְשַׁסְתְּא; in Heb. once also אַרְתַּחְשַׁשְׂתָּא; Aram. Papyri ארתחשסש), name of three Persian kings. (1) Artaxerxes I was surnamed Makrokheir (Greek) or… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
Artaxerxes — (Latin; Greek Ἀρταξέρξης) is a corruption of Old Persian Artaxšacā , whose reign is through arta (truth) and may refer to:The throne name of several Achaemenid rulers of the 1st Persian Empire: * Artaxerxes I Longimanus, r. 465 BC 424 BC, son and … Wikipedia
Artaxerxes — ist der Name von fünf Königen des Achämenidenreiches sowie dreier Herrscher aus dem Geschlecht der Sassaniden: Artaxerxes I. Makrocheir (ap: Artachschatra, Regierungszeit 465 v. Chr. – 424 v. Chr.), der 5. Herrscher nach dem Reichsgründer Kyros… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Artaxerxes — Artaxerxès Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Artaxerxès (en grec Ἀρταξέρξης, transcription du vieux persan Artaxšacā) est le nom porté par plusieurs Grands Rois perses de la dynastie… … Wikipédia en Français
Artaxerxes — [är΄tə zʉrk′sēz] 1. Artaxerxes I 465? 424? B.C.; king of ancient Persia: son of Xerxes I 2. Artaxerxes II 404? 358 B.C.; king of ancient Persia * * * … Universalium
Artaxerxes — [är΄tə zʉrk′sēz] 1. Artaxerxes I 465? 424? B.C.; king of ancient Persia: son of Xerxes I 2. Artaxerxes II 404? 358 B.C.; king of ancient Persia … English World dictionary
Artaxerxes — Persian masc. proper name, in classical history, a son of Xerxes II, also a son of Darius, from Gk. Artaxerxes (explained by Herodotus as Great Warrior ), from O.Pers. ArtaxЕЎaca, lit. having a kingdom of justice, from arta justice + xЕЎaca… … Etymology dictionary