Arnulf

/ahr"noolf/, n.
A.D. 850?-899, emperor of the Holy Roman Empire 887-899: crowned 896.

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died Dec. 8, 899

King of Germany.

Originally duke of Carinthia, he was elected king of the eastern Franks in 887, deposing his uncle, Charles the Fat. The western Franks, Burgundy, and Italy refused to recognize Arnulf, thus dividing the Carolingian empire. He defeated the Vikings (891), ending their raids up the Rhine River, and maintained control of Lotharingia (now Lorraine). He invaded Italy at the urging of Pope Formosus, captured Rome (895), and was crowned emperor in 896. Illness forced him to return to Germany, however, and the previous emperor continued to rule. Arnulf's last years saw invasions by Magyars and Slavs and the collapse of his power.

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▪ Holy Roman emperor
also called  Arnulf of Carinthia , German  Arnulf Von Kärnten 
died Dec. 8, 899
 duke of Carinthia who deposed his uncle, the Holy Roman emperor Charles III the Fat, and became king of Germany, later briefly wearing the crown of the emperor.

      Arnulf was the illegitimate son of Charles the Fat's eldest brother, Carloman, who was king of Bavaria. Arnulf inherited the march of Carinthia from his father but was excluded from the succession to the kingdom on Carloman's death. Arnulf maintained and consolidated his frontiers, though in constant tension with the Moravian kingdom of Svatopluk. In November 887, at Frankfurt, the East Frankish magnates revolted against the incompetent emperor Charles the Fat, who since 885 had ruled the reunited Carolingian empire. Arnulf was elected king of the East Franks, and Charles yielded without a struggle. The West Franks, Burgundy, and Italy refused to recognize Arnulf, however, and elected new kings from their own nobility. The Carolingian empire thus finally disintegrated.

      Arnulf's base of operations remained in Bavaria, but he successfully defended his authority as German king in Lotharingia (now Lorraine), and he even maintained a loose feudal authority over the other kings. He was an energetic ruler whose suzerainty was acknowledged even by the sons of Svatopluk after their father's death in 894. In 891 Arnulf inflicted a crushing defeat on the Vikings at the Dyle River, north of Brussels, and their raids up the Rhine River consequently ended in 892. Arnulf also gave his son Zwentibold the crown of Lotharingia.

      The king of Italy, Guy of Spoleto (Guy II), had had himself crowned Holy Roman emperor by Pope Stephen V. In 893, after reluctantly crowning Guy's son, Lambert (Lambert Of Spoleto), as coemperor, the new pope, Formosus, sought help against Guy from Arnulf, who accordingly invaded Italy in 894. Arnulf withdrew from Italy later that same year, but, after Guy's death in 894, Pope Formosus urged Arnulf to invade Italy once more. Crossing the Alps in October 895, Arnulf, although handicapped by bad weather, illness, and the absence of expected support from Berengar of Friuli, appeared before the walls of Rome. Rome fell, and in St. Peter's on Feb. 22, 896, Arnulf was crowned emperor by Formosus, who declared Lambert deposed. After a two-week stay in the city, Arnulf marched south to settle accounts with his rival at Spoleto, but en route he was suddenly taken ill and had to return to Germany. Lambert remained emperor despite the pope's action.

      The last three years of Arnulf's life, during which his illness continued, saw Germany invaded by Moravians and Hungarians, Lotharingia in revolt against Zwentibold, Italy lost, and France free of Arnulf's influence.

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Universalium. 2010.

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