Arikara

/euh rik"euhr euh/, n., pl. Arikaras, (esp. collectively) Arikara for 1.
1. a member of a group of North American Indians of Pawnee origin who now inhabit the Dakota region.
2. the Caddoan language spoken by the Arikara.

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people
also called  Sahnish 
 North American Plains Indians of the Caddoan linguistic family. The cultural roots of Caddoan-speaking peoples lay in the prehistoric mound-building societies of the lower Mississippi River valley. The Arikara were culturally related to the Pawnee, from whom they broke away and moved gradually northward, becoming the northernmost Caddoan tribe. Before American colonization of the Plains, the Arikara lived along the Missouri River between the Cannonball and Cheyenne rivers in what are now North and South Dakota.

 The Arikara traditionally lived in substantial semipermanent villages of earth lodges, domed earth-berm structures. Their economy relied heavily upon raising corn (maize), beans, squash, sunflowers, and tobacco; Arikara households used these products and traded them with other tribes for meat and processed hides. Arikara women were responsible for farming, food preparation and preservation, clothing production, lodge building, and the rituals associated with their work; Arikara men hunted deer, elk, and buffalo, provided defense, and performed rituals related to these practices.

      The most important items in Arikara material culture were the sacred bundles. These collections of objects were treated as living connections to the divine, and many village activities were organized around the perceived needs of the bundles and the sacred beings who communicated through them. Each bundle had a bundle-keeper, an office that tended to be the hereditary prerogative of a few leading families. Lower leadership positions were associated with organized military, dancing, and curing societies. The Arikara shared with other Plains tribes the practice of self-sacrifice in the Sun Dance.

      The Arikara were seen as an obstacle by white trading parties moving up the Missouri River; in 1823 a battle with traders under the aegis of William H. Ashley's (Ashley, William Henry) Rocky Mountain Fur Company resulted in the first U.S. Army campaign against a Plains tribe. In response, the Arikara left their villages and adopted a nomadic equestrian lifestyle for a period of years.

      Although the Arikara had numbered between 3,000 and 4,000 individuals near the end of the 1700s, wars and epidemic disease had severely reduced their population by the middle of the 19th century. In the 1860s they joined the Mandan and Hidatsa tribes; these tribes coalesced, becoming known as the Three Affiliated Tribes, and a reservation was created for them at Fort Berthold, N.D. By 1885 the Arikara had taken up farming and livestock production on family farmsteads dispersed along the rich Missouri River bottomlands.

      In the 1950s construction of the Garrison Dam flooded the Missouri River bottomlands, creating Lake Sakakawea; more than a quarter of the Fort Berthold reservation lands were permanently flooded by the rising waters. This and the discovery of oil in the Williston Basin forced another removal, this time to new homes on the arid North Dakota uplands, where farming was difficult. As a result, reservation communities suffered an economic depression; however, by the end of the 20th century, the Three Affiliated Tribes had regained a level of prosperity through buffalo ranching and other tribal businesses.

      Early 21st-century population estimates indicated more than 1,000 individuals of Arikara descent.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

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  • Arikara — (also Sahnish, Arikaree, Ree) refers to a group of Native Americans that speak a Caddoan language. They were a semi nomadic group that lived on the Great Plains of the United States of America for several hundred years. They lived primarily in… …   Wikipedia

  • Arikara —   [ə rikərə], Indianergruppe (etwa 1 900 A.) am oberen Missouri. Die Arikara sprechen eine Sprache der Caddo Sprachfamilie. Sie bewohnten palisadengeschützte Erdhausdörfer und leben in der 1880 gegründeten Fort Berthold Reservation mit den Mandan …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Arikara — ☆ Arikara [ə rē′kə rə, ə rē′rik′ərə ] n. [Fr Aricara < Pawnee arikará·ruʾ, elk, lit., horns; explained as an allusion to a hairstyle formerly worn by male members of this people] 1. a member of a North American Indian people living along the… …   English World dictionary

  • Arikara — Wohngebiet Ehemaliges Stammesgebiet der Arikaree und heutige Reservation in North Dakota. Systematik Kulturareal …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Arikara — noun (plural Arikara) Etymology: probably from a Pawnee name for an Arikara band Date: 1811 1. a member of an American Indian people of the Missouri River valley in North Dakota 2. the language of the Arikara …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • Arikara — noun 1. a member of the Caddo people who formerly lived in the Dakotas west of the Missouri river • Syn: ↑Aricara • Hypernyms: ↑Caddo 2. the Caddoan language spoken by the Arikara • Syn: ↑Aricara • Hypernyms: ↑ …   Useful english dictionary

  • Arikara — Sahnish Arikara …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Arikara — A•rik•a•ra [[t]əˈrɪk ər ə[/t]] n. pl. ras, (esp. collectively) ra. 1) peo a member of an American Indian people of North Dakota 2) peo the Caddoan language of the Arikara, closely related to Pawnee …   From formal English to slang

  • Arikara — ISO 639 3 Code : ari ISO 639 2/B Code : ISO 639 2/T Code : ISO 639 1 Code : Scope : Individual Language Type : Living …   Names of Languages ISO 639-3

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