Arad

/ah rahd"/ n.
1. a city in W Rumania, on the Mures River. 171,110.
2. a town in southern Israel: site of ancient Canaanite town. 11,600.

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      city, capital of Arad judeţ (county), western Romania. It is located in the lower Mureş River valley close to the Hungarian border, about 30 miles (50 km) north-northeast of Timişoara. The city has a large Magyar (Hungarian) population.

      The site became a Roman outpost south of the river at Aradu Nou (“New Arad”). The first documented mention of Arad dates from 1131. Arad was in Turkish hands, with brief interruptions, from about 1550 until 1700, when it came under the control of Austria. During the Hungarian rebellion of 1848–49, it was captured by the Hungarians (July 1, 1849) and was made their headquarters. After the rebellion was put down, with the assistance of Russia, 13 Hungarian generals, “the martyrs of Arad,” were executed there on Oct. 6, 1849. Arad became part of Romania after World War I and was named a county capital in 1919.

      Arad is a railway junction and commercial and industrial centre. Its manufactures include machine tools, railway cars, and textiles. Milling, distilling, and woodworking are also important. The city has a theatre, an orchestra, and a cultural centre with a library and museum. Pop. (2007 est.) 167,238.

      judeţ (county), western Romania, bounded on the west by Hungary. The Mureş and Crişul Alb rivers flow westward through the county, while the Western Carpathians, including the Zărand and Codru-Moma ranges, lie in the eastern portion. Settlements are found in the lowlands and intermontane valleys. Cereal growing, livestock raising, and vineyard and fruit cultivation are the main agricultural activities. Clover, alfalfa, and onions are other crops.

      Arad city, the county capital, passed through Roman, Tatar, Turkish, and Hungarian hands. Şiria town was built on a Roman settlement, and Pecica was a Geto-Dacian walled city during Burebistas' reign (82–44 BC). Lipova has a 14th-century building that was converted into a mosque during the Turkish occupation (1552–1699). A 15th-century castle and a nature reserve are located at Savârşin. A highway and a railway line that parallel the Mureş River were based on a former Roman road. A domestic airport is near Arad city. Area 2,994 square miles (7,754 square km). Pop. (2007 est.) 457,713.

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Universalium. 2010.

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