anticholinesterase

/an'tee koh'leuh nes"teuh rays', -rayz', -kol'euh-, an'tuy-/, n. Biochem., Pharm.
an enzyme or drug that blocks the action of acetylcholinesterase, thereby increasing the stimulating effect of acetylcholine on the muscles.
[1950-55; ANTI- + CHOLINESTERASE]

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drug
      any of several drugs that prevent destruction of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine by the enzyme acetylcholinesterase within the nervous system (nervous system, human). Acetylcholine acts to transmit nerve impulses within the parasympathetic nervous system—i.e., that part of the autonomic nervous system that tends to induce secretion, to contract smooth muscles, and to dilate blood vessels. In preventing the destruction of acetylcholine, anticholinesterase permits high levels of this neurotransmitter to build up at the sites of its action, thus stimulating the parasympathetic nervous system and in turn slowing the heart action, lowering blood pressure, increasing secretion, and inducing contraction of the smooth muscles.

      Physostigmine and neostigmine are among the principal anticholinesterases. These drugs have only a few clinical uses, mainly in augmenting gastric and intestinal contractions (in treatment of obstructions of the digestive tract) and augmenting muscular contractions in general (in the treatment of myasthenia gravis). Other anticholinesterases in larger doses, however, are widely used as toxins (toxin) that achieve their effects by causing a continual stimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system. parathion and Malathion are thus highly effective agricultural insecticides (insecticide), while sarin, tabun, and soman are nerve gases designed for use in chemical warfare (chemical weapon) to induce nausea, vomiting, convulsions, and death in humans.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

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  • anticholinestérase — ● anticholinestérase nom féminin Substance s opposant à l hydrolyse de l acétylcholine par inhibition de l acétylcholinestérase …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • anticholinesterase — [an΄ti kō΄lin es′tər ās΄ , an΄tē kō΄lin es′tər′ās΄, an΄ti kō΄lines′tər ās΄] n. a substance that inhibits the action of a cholinesterase, as the drug physostigmine or the insecticide parathion …   English World dictionary

  • anticholinesterase — One of the drugs that inhibit or inactivate acetylcholinesterase, either reversibly ( e.g., physostigmine) or irreversibly ( e.g., tetraethyl pyrophosphate). * * * an·ti·cho·lin·es·ter·ase nes tə .rās, .rāz n any substance (as neostigmine) that… …   Medical dictionary

  • anticholinesterase — n. any substance that inhibits the action of cholinesterase, the enzyme that is responsible for the breakdown of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, and therefore allows acetylcholine to continue transmitting nerve impulses. Drugs with… …   The new mediacal dictionary

  • anticholinesterase — noun Date: 1942 a substance (as neostigmine) that inhibits a cholinesterase by combination with it …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • Anticholinestérase — Cette section est vide, insuffisamment détaillée ou incomplète. Votre aide est la bienvenue ! Les substances anticholinesterasiques sont des inhibiteurs d une enzyme cholinestérase responsable de la dégradation de l acétylcholine… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • anticholinesterase — noun Any agent that inhibits the activity of cholinesterase Syn: acetylcholinesterase inhibitor …   Wiktionary

  • anticholinesterase — an·ti·cho·lin·es·ter·ase …   English syllables

  • anticholinesterase — an•ti•cho•lin•es•ter•ase [[t]ˌæn tiˌkoʊ ləˈnɛs təˌreɪs, ˌreɪz, ˌkɒl ə , ˌæn taɪ [/t]] n. biochem. pha an enzyme or drug that blocks the action of acetylcholinesterase, thereby increasing the stimulating effect of acetylcholine on the muscles •… …   From formal English to slang

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