amyl alcohol

a colorless liquid, C5H12O, consisting of a mixture of two or more isomeric alcohols, derived from the pentanes, and used as a solvent and intermediate for organic synthesis: the main component of fusel oil.

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also called  Pentyl Alcohol,  

      any of eight organic compounds having the same molecular formula, C5H11OH, but different structures. The term is commonly applied to mixtures of these compounds, which are used as solvents for resins and oily materials and in the manufacture of other chemicals, especially amyl acetate, a solvent for nitrocellulose lacquers. Commercial amyl alcohols are colourless liquids, slightly soluble in water, and having a characteristic penetrating odour.

      Before the 1920s, the only economical source of amyl alcohol was fusel oil, which is formed as a minor product in the fermentation of carbohydrates to make ethyl alcohol. More abundant and dependable production results from two industrial syntheses that employ hydrocarbons available from petroleum. In the first of these methods, introduced in 1926, the chlorination of pentane gives mixed amyl chlorides that are converted to the desired alcohols by reaction with water and caustic alkali. A second process, introduced in 1953, is based on the reaction of carbon monoxide and hydrogen with butene.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Amyl alcohol — Am yl al co*hol (Org. Chem.) Any of eight isomeric liquid alcohols ({C5H11.OH}), transparent, colorless liquids. It is the hydroxide of amyl. Also called {amylic alcohol}. The amyl alcohol obtained from {fusel oil} is mostly isoamyl alcohol (3… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Amyl alcohol — is an organic compound with the formula C5H11OH. All eight isomers of amyl alcohol are known::Three of these alcohols, active amyl alcohol, methyl (n) propyl carbinol, and methyl isopropyl carbinol, are optically active, as they contain an… …   Wikipedia

  • amyl alcohol — Alcohol Al co*hol ([a^]l k[ o]*h[o^]l), n. [Cf. F. alcool, formerly written alcohol, Sp. alcohol alcohol, antimony, galena, OSp. alcofol; all fr. Ar. al kohl a powder of antimony or galena, to paint the eyebrows with. The name was afterwards… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • amyl alcohol — n any of eight isomeric alcohols C5H12O used esp. as solvents and in making esters also either of two commercially produced mixtures of amyl alcohols used esp. as solvents …   Medical dictionary

  • amyl alcohol — n. a colorless, sharp smelling alcohol, C5H11OH, obtained by the fermentation of starchy substances and also present in fusel oil: it has several isomeric forms …   English World dictionary

  • amyl alcohol — noun a mixture of 2 or more isomeric alcohols; used as a solvent and in organic synthesis • Hypernyms: ↑alcohol * * * noun 1. : pentyl alcohol 2. : either of two commercially produced mixtures of pentyl alcohols used chiefly in making esters and… …   Useful english dictionary

  • amyl alcohol — pentilo alkoholis statusas T sritis chemija formulė H(CH₂)₅OH atitikmenys: angl. amyl alcohol; pentyl alcohol rus. амиловый спирт; пентиловый спирт ryšiai: sinonimas – 1 pentanolis …   Chemijos terminų aiškinamasis žodynas

  • amyl alcohol — (Chemistry) colorless isomeric alcohol produced by combining two alcohol from the pentanes (used as a solvent and in organic synthesis) …   English contemporary dictionary

  • amyl alcohol — noun Date: 1863 any of eight isomeric alcohols C5H12O used especially as solvents and in making esters; also a commercially produced mixture of amyl alcohols used especially as a solvent …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • amyl alcohol — noun Any of the isomers of pentanol, CHOH; the principal constituent of fusel oil. Syn: pentanol …   Wiktionary

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