- See canonize.
* * *Official act of a Christian church declaring a deceased member worthy of veneration and entering his or her name in the canon (authorized list) of saints.The cult of local martyrs was widespread in the early church, and by the 10th century church authorities were considering the need for formal recognition of saints by Rome, a change that was formalized by Gregory IX in the 13th century. Responsibility for beatification (declaring a person worthy of limited veneration) was assigned to the Roman Curia under Sixtus V (r. 1585–90). A candidate's writings, miracles, and reputation for sanctity are investigated: one official gathers evidence in favor of beatification; another (the "devil's advocate") is charged with seeing that the entire truth is made known about the candidate. Canonization requires proof of two miracles subsequent to beatification. The process in the Eastern Orthodox Church is less formal; popular devotion by the faithful serving as the usual basis for sainthood.
* * *official act mainly of the Roman Catholic Church declaring one of its deceased members worthy of public cult and entering his or her name in the canon, or authorized list, of recognized saints. In the early church there was no formal canonization, but the cult of local martyrs was widespread and was regulated by the bishop of the diocese. The translation of the martyr's remains from the place of burial to a church was equivalent to canonization. Gradually, ecclesiastical authorities intervened more directly in the process of canonization. By the 10th century appeals were made to the pope. The first saint canonized by a pope was Ulrich, bishop of Augsburg, who died in 973 and was canonized by Pope John XV at the Lateran Council of 993. Pope Alexander III (1159–81) began to reserve the cases of canonization to the Holy See, and this became general law under Gregory IX (1227–41).Pope Sixtus V (1585–90) assigned to the Congregation of Rites, one of the offices of the Roman Curia, the duty of conducting the processes of beatification (i.e., a first step toward canonization, whereby limited public veneration is permitted) and canonization. In the following century Pope Urban VIII forbade the public cult of any person not as yet beatified or canonized by the church. Exception was made only for those who were in possession of public cult from time immemorial or for at least 100 years.The legislation of Pope Urban VIII, together with later legislation by Pope Benedict XIV, formed the basis of the procedures for beatification and canonization found in the Code of Canon Law (promulgated 1917) of the Roman Catholic Church (Roman Catholicism). Two types of beatification and canonization are distinguished by the Code: formal, or ordinary, and extraordinary, or equivalent.Formal beatification has entailed four general steps: an informative process, introduction of the cause, the apostolic process, and four definite judgments. The first of these steps was under the jurisdiction of the bishop in whose diocese it took place, the other three were directly under the jurisdiction of the Congregation of Rites and the pope. In the late 1960s Pope Paul VI announced that the process of beatification and canonization would be shortened and decentralized, and he established a new congregation (administrative division) of the Curia to handle such processes. Diocesan, provincial, or regional courts would conduct the entire investigation in consultation with the Vatican. Thus, duplication would be avoided and less time needed to complete the process.The investigation of the candidate involves the gathering together of all material pertaining to the candidate's reputation for sanctity or heroic virtue, the writings of the candidate, and information about miracles performed by the candidate either during his or her life or after death. The bishop appoints a person, called postulator of the cause, to promote the cause and also a promoter of the faith, commonly known as the “devil's advocate,” to see that the entire truth is made known about the candidate. After the process is completed, if the pope orders the beatification, it is in the form of a solemn proclamation with a solemn mass. Veneration then may be carried on in specified localities.The canonization process is essentially the same, but at least two authentic miracles obtained through invocation after beatification must occur before the cause for canonization may be introduced. Extraordinary, or equivalent, canonization is simply a papal confirmation that a person is a saint. It is applied only to persons whose veneration was immemorial at the time of Pope Urban VIII (1634).Canonization in the Eastern Orthodox church (Eastern Orthodoxy) is a solemn proclamation rather than a process. Spontaneous devotion toward an individual by the faithful establishes the usual basis for sainthood. The bishop accepts the petition, examines it, and delivers it to a commission that will render a final decision.In the Anglican (Anglicanism) church, a commission was appointed in 1950 that discussed in subsequent years (especially at the 1958 Lambeth Conference) the question of canonization for members of its own communion.
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Canonization — Can on*i*za tion, n. [F. canonisation.] [1913 Webster] 1. (R. C. Ch.) The final process or decree (following beatifacation) by which the name of a deceased person is placed in the catalogue (canon) of saints and commended to perpetual veneration… … The Collaborative International Dictionary of English
canonization — index elevation Burton s Legal Thesaurus. William C. Burton. 2006 … Law dictionary
canonization — (n.) late 14c., from M.L. canonizationem, noun of action from canonizare (see CANONIZE (Cf. canonize)) … Etymology dictionary
canonization — (Amer.) canÂ·onÂ·iÂ·zaÂ·tion || â€škÃ¦nÉ™naÉª zeÉªÊƒn n. (Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Church) sanctification, placement in the canon of saints; making canonical (also canonisation) … English contemporary dictionary
canonization — Canonization, Apotheosis … Thresor de la langue françoyse
Canonization — For other uses, see Canonization (disambiguation). Icon of St. Cyprian of Carthage, who urged diligence in the process of canonization. Canonization (or canonisation) is the act by which a Christian church declares a deceased person to be a saint … Wikipedia
canonization — This word (from the Greek kanōn, meaning rule or law ) refers to the fact that a person has been added to the official list of saints. Canonization is an official proclamation by the Pope that a person (who has been beatified) may be venerated … Glossary of theological terms
canonization — canonize (also canonise) ► VERB 1) (in the Roman Catholic Church) officially declare (a dead person) to be a saint. 2) sanction by Church authority. DERIVATIVES canonization noun. ORIGIN Latin canonizare admit as authoritative … English terms dictionary
canonization — noun see canonize … New Collegiate Dictionary
canonization — noun a) The final process or decree (following beatification) by which the name of a deceased person is placed in the catalogue (canon) of saints and commended to perpetual veneration and invocation. b) The state of being canonized or sainted … Wiktionary