New Model Army

the army organized by Oliver Cromwell in 1645 to fight the supporters of Charles I in the English Civil War. It was Britain’s first professional army, and its discipline and training were important factors in winning the war.
See also Fairfax.

* * *

(1645) Army that won the English Civil Wars for Parliament.

It was formed to provide a well-trained force drawn from all parts of England instead of the limited local militias. The new army also replaced the private armies raised by individual generals that lacked a unified command. Under Baron Fairfax and Oliver Cromwell, the New Model Army won the Battle of Naseby and effectively ended the first phase of the Civil Wars.

* * *

▪ British history
      army formed in February 1645 that won the English Civil War (English Civil Wars) for Parliament and itself came to exercise important political power. When war broke out in 1642, Parliament had at its command the local militia, or trainbands, of those districts supporting its cause, notably London, the eastern counties, and southeast England. But militia were always unwilling to fight far from their homes, so in addition Parliament authorized (as did King Charles I) its prominent supporters to raise troops of horse and infantry companies from among their own tenants and associates. These private parliamentary armies were perhaps in better condition than those raised for the king, because Parliament provided for their pay; but strategically they were not effective because of the lack of unified command. Toward the end of 1644 a dispute about the conduct of the war developed between Henry Montagu, Earl of Manchester, one of the main parliamentary generals, and his lieutenant general, Oliver Cromwell. In December Cromwell argued in a major speech that the war would never be brought to a conclusion unless Parliament's military resources were improved. There was already some general feeling that members of Parliament holding military command might be tempted to prolong the war in order to continue their personal power. As a result, the New Model Army was brought into existence; it was planned to comprise 11 regiments of horse of 600 men each, 12 regiments of foot of 1,200 men each, and 1,000 dragoons (mounted infantrymen). The cavalry, always easier to raise, were mainly veterans drawn from the original armies of Manchester, the Earl of Essex, and Sir William Waller; the infantry included some veterans from the armies, with a majority of pressed men drawn from London, the east, and southeast. In April 1645, by the Self-Denying Ordinance, members of Parliament resigned all military and civil office and command acquired since November 1640. Sir Thomas Fairfax (afterward 3rd Baron Fairfax—the “younger” Fairfax) was appointed captain general of the New Model Army, with authority to appoint his senior officers. The army's organization and the thorough training of its men were accomplished by Fairfax, not Cromwell, who, despite the Self-Denying Ordinance, became his leader of horse just before the great parliamentary victory at Naseby (June 14, 1645). After Naseby the army was mainly occupied in sieges, but it obtained such political power that eventually its authority eclipsed that of Parliament. Under Cromwell it won Dunbar and Worcester, the great battles of the Commonwealth period, against Charles II and the Scots.

      In the 1650s the army served in garrisons in England, Scotland, and Ireland, extending the authority of the London government throughout the British Isles for the first time. Repeated purges and reorganizations weakened its unit cohesion, and in 1659–60 it failed to uphold the republic, allowing the restoration of Charles II.

* * *


Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • New Model Army — New Model Army …   Википедия

  • New Model Army 3×CD — New Model Army 3 x CD Box set by New Model Army Released 2000 New Model Army 3 x CD is a box set collection of the New Model Army studio albums The Ghost Of Cain (1986) and Thunder Consolation (1989) and the live album Raw Melody Men (19 …   Wikipedia

  • New Model Army — noun The Parliamentary army as remodelled by Cromwell in 1645 • • • Main Entry: ↑new …   Useful english dictionary

  • New Model Army — For the band, see New Model Army (band). The Soldier s Catechism: rules, regulations and drill procedures of the New Model Army. The New Model Army of England was formed in 1645 by the Parliamentarians in the English Civil War, and was disbanded… …   Wikipedia

  • New Model Army — Parliament s forces …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • New Model Army — El catecismo del soldado: reglas, regulaciones y procedimientos duros …   Wikipedia Español

  • New Model Army 3 x CD — Infobox Album Name = New Model Army 3 x CD Type = box Artist = New Model Army Released = 2000 Recorded = Genre = Length = Label = Producer = Reviews = Last album = This album = Next album = New Model Army 3 x CD is a box set collection of the New …   Wikipedia

  • New Model Army — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. La New Model Army est l armée que le Parlement britannique charge Oliver Cromwell d organiser, sur le modèle de ses propres troupes, lors de la Première… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • New Model Army — New Mod|el Ar|my, the an army started by Oliver Cromwell during the English ↑Civil War in 1645, which was well trained and skilled at fighting. It consisted of ↑Roundheads, fighting against King Charles I and his ↑Cavaliers …   Dictionary of contemporary English

  • New Model Army — noun the army of the English Parliamentarians, established in 1645 during the Civil War …   Australian English dictionary

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.