To stand; with derivatives meaning “place or thing that is standing.” Oldest form *steə₂-, colored to *staə₂-, contracted to *stā-.
Derivatives include steed, stud2, arrest, instant, understand, static, prostitute, insist, ecstasy, and system.
I. Basic form *stā-.
1. Extended form *stādh-.
a. steed, from Old English stēda, stallion, studhorse (< “place for breeding horses”), from Germanic *stōd-jōn-;
b. stud2, from Old English stōd, establishment for breeding horses, from Germanic *stōdō.
2. Suffixed form *stā-lo-.
a. stool, from Old English stōl, stool;
b. Germanic compound *faldistōlaz (see pel-2). Both a and b from Germanic *stōlaz.
4. Suffixed form *stā-men-. etamine, stamen, stammel, from Latin stāmen, thread of the warp (a technical term).
5. Suffixed form *stā-mon-. penstemon, from Greek stēmōn, thread.
6. Suffixed form *stā-ro-. starets, from Old Church Slavonic starŭ, old (“long-standing”).
II. Zero-grade form *stə- (before consonants).
1. Nasalized extended form *stə-n-t-.
a. stand, from Old English standan, to stand;
b. understand, from Old English understandan, to know, stand under (under-, under-; see n̥dher-);
c. standard, from Frankish *standan, to stand;
d. stound, from Old English stund, a fixed time, while, from secondary zero-grade form in Germanic *stund-ō. a-d all from Germanic *standan.
2. Suffixed form *stə-tyo-. stithy, from Old Norse stedhi, anvil, from Germanic *stathjōn-.
3. Suffixed form *stə-tlo-. staddle, stall2, starling2; stalwart, from Old English stathol, foundation, from Germanic *stathlaz.
4. Suffixed form *stə-mno-.
(i) stem1, from Old English stefn, stem, tree trunk;
(ii) stalag, from Old High German stam, stem. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic *stamniz;
b. estaminet, probably from Walloon stamen, post to which a cow is tied at the feeding-trough, from a source derived from or akin to Germanic *stamniz.
5. Suffixed form *stə-ti-.
(i) stead, from Old English stede, place;
(ii) shtetl, from Old High German stat, place. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic *stadiz;
b. stat2, from Latin statim, at once;
c. station, from Latin statiō, a standing still;
d. armistice, solstice, from Latin -stitium, a stoppage;
e. stasis, from Greek stasis (see III. 1. b.), a standing, a standstill.
6. Suffixed form *stə-to-.
a. bestead, from Old Norse stadhr, place, from Germanic *stadaz, placed;
b. -stat, static, statice, stato-; astasia, astatine, from Greek statos, placed, standing.
7. Suffixed form *stə-no-.
a. destine, from Latin dēstināre, to make firm, establish (dē-, thoroughly; see de-);
b. obstinate, from Latin obstināre, to set one's mind on, persist (ob-, on; see epi).
8. Suffixed form *stə-tu-. estate, étagère, stage, state, statistics, statue, stature, status, statute; constitute, destitute, institute, prostitute, restitute, substitute, superstition, from Latin status, manner, position, condition, attitude, with derivatives statūra, height, stature, statuere, to set up, erect, cause to stand, and superstes (< *-stə-t-), witness (“who stands beyond”).
9. Suffixed form *stə-dhlo-. stable2; constable, from Latin stabulum, “standing place,” stable.
10. Suffixed form *stə-dhli-. establish, stable1, from Latin stabilis, standing firm.
11. Suffixed form *stə-tā. -stat; enstatite, from Greek -statēs, one that causes to stand, a standing.
III. Zero-grade form *st-, *st(ə)- (before vowels).
1. Reduplicated form *si-st(ə)-.
a. assist, consist, desist, exist, insist, interstice, persist, resist, subsist, from Latin sistere, to set, place, stop, stand;
b. apostasy, catastasis, diastase, ecstasy, epistasis, epistemology, hypostasis, iconostasis, isostasy, metastasis, prostate, system, from Greek histanai (aorist stanai), to set, place, with stasis (*stə-ti-), a standing (see I. 5. e.);
c. histo-; histiocyte, histogram, from Greek histos, web, tissue (< “that which is set up”).
2. Compound form *tri-st-i-, “third person standing by” (see trei-).
3. Compound form *por-st-i-, “that which stands before” (*por-, before, forth; see per1). post1, from Latin postis, post.
4. Suffixed form *st-o- in compound *upo-st-o- (see upo).
IV. Extended root *stāu- (< *staəu-), becoming *stau- before consonants, *stāw- before vowels; basic meaning “stout-standing, strong.”
1. Suffixed extended form *stāw-ā-. stow, from Old English stōw, place, from Germanic *stōwō.
2. Probable o-grade suffixed extended form *stōw-yā-. stoa, stoic, from Greek stoā (also stoiā, stōiā), porch.
3. Suffixed extended form *stau-ro-.
(i) store; instauration, from Latin īnstaurāre, to restore, set upright again (in-, on; see en);
(ii) restore, from Latin restaurāre, to restore, rebuild (re-, anew, again; see re-);
b. staurolite, from Greek stauros, cross, post, stake.
4. Variant *tau-ro-, bull (see tauro-).
V. Zero-grade extended root *stū- (< *stuə-). Suffixed form *stū-lo-. stylite; amphistylar, astylar, epistyle, hexastyle, hypostyle, octastyle, peristyle, prostyle, stylobate, from Greek stūlos, pillar.
VI. Secondary full-grade form *steuə-. Suffixed form *steuə-ro-. Theravada, from Sanskrit sthavira-, thick, stout, old.
VII. Variant zero-grade extended root *stu-. Suffixed form *stu-t-. stud1, from Old English stuthu, studu, post, prop.
VIII. Secondary full-grade form *steu-.
1. Suffixed form *steu-rā-. starboard, from Old English stēor-, a steering, from Germanic *steurō, “a steering.”
a. steer1, from Old English stīeran, stēran, to steer;
b. stern2, from Middle English sterne, stern of a boat, possibly from a source akin to Old Norse stjōrn, a rudder, a steering, derivative of stȳra, to steer. Both a and b from Germanic denominative *steurjan.
3. Suffixed form *steu-ro-, a larger domestic animal. steer2, from Old English stēor, steer, from Germanic *steuraz, ox.
4. Probably Germanic diminutive *steur-ika-. stirk, from Old English stīrc, stierc, calf.
[Pokorny stā- 1004.]

* * *

Universalium. 2010.

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