genə-

Also gen-. To give birth, beget; with derivatives referring to aspects and results of procreation and to familial and tribal groups. Oldest form *g̑enə₁-, becoming *genə₁- in centum languages.
Derivatives include kin, king, jaunty, genius, pregnant, gingerly, and nature.
I. Basic form *genə-.
1. Suffixed form *genə-es-.
b. gene; allogeneic, genealogy, genocide, genotype, heterogeneous, syngeneic, from Greek genos and geneā, race, family;
c. -gen, -geny; epigene, from Greek suffix -genēs, “-born.”
2. Suffixed form *gen(ə)-yo-.
a. genial1, genius; congenial, from Latin genius, procreative divinity, inborn tutelary spirit, innate quality;
b. engine, ingenious, from Latin ingenium, inborn character (in-, in; see en).
3. Suffixed form *genə-ā-. indigen, indigenous, from Latin indigena, born in (a place), indigenous (indu-, within; see en).
4. Suffixed form *genə-wo-. genuine, ingenuous, from Latin ingenuus, born in (a place), native, natural, freeborn (in-, in; see en).
5. Suffixed form *gen(ə)-men-. germ, german2, germane, germinal, germinate, from dissimilated Latin germen, shoot, bud, embryo, germ.
II. O-grade form *gonə-, reduced to *gon- in suffixed form *gon-o-.
1. gonad, gono-, -gony; archegonium, epigone, hormogonium, from Greek gonos, child, procreation, seed.
2. Harijan, from Sanskrit janaḥ, offspring, child, person.
III. Zero-grade form *gn̥ə-.
1. Suffixed form *gn̥ə-yo-.
a. kin; kindred, from Old English cyn(n), race, family, kin;
b. king, from Old English cyning, king, from Germanic *kuningaz, king. Both a and b from Germanic *kunjam, family.
2. Suffixed form *gn̥ə-t-.
a. kind2, from Old English cynd, gecynd(e), origin, birth, race, family, kind, from Germanic *kundjaz, family, race;
b. kind1, from Old English gecynde, natural, native, fitting (ge-, collective prefix; see kom), from Germanic *kundiz, natural, native;
c. suffixed form *gn̥ə-ti-.
(i) gens, genteel, gentile, gentle, gentry, jaunty; gendarme, from Latin gēns (stem genti-), race, clan;
(ii) genesis, -genesis, from Greek genesis, birth, beginning;
d. kindergarten, Kriss Kringle, wunderkind, from Old High German kind, child, from Germanic secondary full-grade variant *kentham;
e. suffixed form *gn̥ə-to-. Jataka, from Sanskrit jāta-, born (verbal adjective of janate, he is born).
3. Reduplicated form *gi-gn(ə)-. genital, genitive, genitor, geniture, gent1, gingerly; congenital, primogenitor, primogeniture, progenitor, progeny, from Latin gignere (past participle genitus), to beget.
4. Reduced form *gn- in suffixed form *-gn-o-. benign, malign, from Latin benignus, good-natured, kindly (bene, well; see deu-2), and malignus, evil-natured, malevolent (male, ill; see mel-3).
5. Zero-grade form *gn̥ə- becoming *gnā-. pregnant1; impregnate, from Latin praegnās, pregnant (prae-, before; see per1).
6. Suffixed form *gn̥ə-sko- becoming *gnā-sko-. naive, nascent, natal, nation, native, nature, née, Noël; adnate, agnate, cognate, connate, enate, innate, neonate, puisne, puny, renaissance, from Latin gnāscī, nāscī (past participle gnātus, nātus), to be born.
7. Reduced form *gn̥- in Sanskrit compound kṛmi-ja- (see kʷr̥mi-).
 
[Pokorny 1. g̑en- 373.]

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Universalium. 2010.

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