vanitas

vanitas [van′i täs΄]
n.
L
1. vanity; futility
2. a work of art containing symbols of mortality or the impermanence of material things; esp., a 17th-cent. Dutch painting of this kind
adj.
of or relating to this genre [the vanitas tradition]

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art
 in art, a genre of still-life painting that flourished in the Netherlands in the early 17th century. A vanitas painting contains collections of objects symbolic of the inevitability of death and the transience and vanity of earthly achievements and pleasures; it exhorts the viewer to consider mortality and to repent. The vanitas evolved from simple pictures of skulls and other symbols of death and transience frequently painted on the reverse sides of portraits during the late Renaissance. It had acquired an independent status by c. 1550 and by 1620 had become a popular genre. Its development until its decline about 1650 was centred in Leiden, in the United Provinces of the Netherlands, an important seat of Calvinism, which emphasized humanity's total depravity and advanced a rigid moral code.

      Although a few vanitas pictures include figures, the vast majority are pure still lifes, containing certain standard elements: symbols of arts and sciences (books, maps, and musical instruments), wealth and power (purses, jewelry, gold objects), and earthly pleasures (goblets, pipes, and playing cards); symbols of death or transience (skulls, clocks, burning candles, soap bubbles, and flowers); and, sometimes, symbols of resurrection and eternal life (usually ears of corn or sprigs of ivy or laurel). The earliest vanitas pictures were sombre, somewhat monochromatic compositions of great power, containing only a few objects (usually books and a skull) executed with elegance and precision. As the century progressed, other elements were included, the mood lightened, and the palette became diversified. Objects were often tumbled together in disarray, suggesting the eventual overthrow of the achievements they represent. Somewhat ironically, the later vanitas paintings became largely a pretext for meticulous virtuosity in the rendering of varied textures and surfaces, but the artistic quality of the genre in no sense declined. Several of the greatest Dutch still-life painters, including David Bailly, Jan Davidsz de Heem (Heem, Jan Davidsz de), Willem Claesz Heda (Heda, Willem Claesz), Pieter Potter, and Harmen and Pieter van Steenwyck, were masters of the vanitas still life, and the influence of the genre can be seen in the iconography and technique of other contemporary painters, including Rembrandt (Rembrandt van Rijn).

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Vanitas — Motiv aus Johann Caspar Lavaters Physiognomischen Fragmenten (1775–78): Hinter der Maske der Schönheit lauert der Tod. Vanitas (lat. „leerer Schein, Nichtigkeit, Eitelkeit“; auch „Lüge, Prahlerei, Misserfolg oder Vergeblichkeit“) ist ein Wort für …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Vanitas —   [v ; lateinisch »Leere«, »nichtiges Treiben«, »Prahlerei«], Mahnung an die Vergänglichkeit irdischen Glücks, v. a. als Thema der bildenden Kunst. Im Mittelalter fand sie Ausdruck v. a. in figürlichen Darstellungen wie »Frau Welt«, Totentanz und …   Universal-Lexikon

  • vanitas — [van′i täs΄] n. [L] 1. vanity; futility 2. a work of art containing symbols of mortality or the impermanence of material things; esp., a 17th cent. Dutch painting of this kind adj. of or relating to this genre [the vanitas tradition] …   English World dictionary

  • Vanitas — Vanitas, lat., Vanität, Nichtigkeit, Eitelkeit; v. vanitatum! Eitelkeit der Eitelkeiten! …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon

  • vanitas — index nullity Burton s Legal Thesaurus. William C. Burton. 2006 …   Law dictionary

  • Vanitas — vanitatum, sagte der Pfaffe, der fiel von einer Frauen. – Hoefer, 882 …   Deutsches Sprichwörter-Lexikon

  • vanitas — /vanˈi tas/ noun 1. A 17c Dutch still life painting in which motifs such as the hourglass, skull or candle feature as reminders of the transience and vanity of human life and aspirations 2. Any painting of this genre ORIGIN: L, vanity …   Useful english dictionary

  • Vanitas — Бартоломеус Брейн Старший, 1 я пол. XVI …   Википедия

  • Vanitas — In the arts, vanitas is a type of symbolic still life painting commonly executed by Northern European painters in Flanders and the Netherlands in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The term vanitas itself refers to the arts, learning and… …   Wikipedia

  • Vanitas — Vanidad, de Juriaen van Streeck …   Wikipedia Español

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