- n.a system or organization of people and groups engaged in criminal activities
* * *Crime committed on a national or international scale by a criminal association; also, the associations themselves.Such associations engage in offenses such as cargo theft, fraud, robbery, kidnapping for ransom, and the demanding of "protection" payments. Their principal source of income derives from the supply of illegal goods and services for which there is continuous public demand, such as drugs, prostitution, "loan-sharking" (i.e., the lending of money at extremely high interest rates), and gambling. They are characterized by a hierarchy of ranks with assigned responsibilities; the coordination of activities among subgroups; the division of geographic territory among different associations; a commitment to total secrecy; efforts to corrupt law-enforcement authorities; and the use of extreme violence, including murder, against rival associations, informers, and other enemies. International rings of smugglers, jewel thieves, and drug traffickers have existed throughout Europe and Asia, and Sicily and Japan have centuries-old criminal organizations. In the U.S., organized crime flourished in the 20th century, especially during the Prohibition era. In the late 20th and early 21st centuries, it became immensely powerful in Russia, taking advantage of a weak and impoverished government and widespread official corruption. See also Mafia; yakuza.
* * *complex of highly centralized enterprises set up for the purpose of engaging in illegal activities. Such organizations engage in offenses such as cargo theft, fraud, robbery, kidnapping for ransom, and the demanding of “protection” payments. The principal source of income for these criminal syndicates is the supply of goods and services that are illegal but for which there is continued public demand, such as drugs, prostitution, loan-sharking (i.e., lending money at extremely high rates of interest), and gambling.Although Europe and Asia have historically had their international rings of smugglers, jewel thieves, and drug traffickers, and Sicily and Japan have centuries-old criminal organizations, organized criminal activities particularly flourished in the 20th century in the United States, where at times organized crime was compared to a cartel of legitimate business firms.The tremendous growth in crime in the United States during prohibition (1920–33) led to the formation of a national organization. After repeal of the Eighteenth Amendment put an end to bootlegging—the practice of illegally manufacturing, selling, or transporting liquor—criminal overlords turned to other activities and became even more highly organized. The usual setup was a hierarchical one, with different “families,” or syndicates, in charge of operations in many of the major cities. At the head of each family was a boss who had the power of life and death over its members. (See also Mafia.)Wherever organized crime existed, it sought protection from interference by the police and the courts. Accordingly, large sums of money have been expended by syndicate bosses in an attempt to gain political influence on both local and national levels of government. Furthermore, profits from various illegal enterprises have been invested in legitimate businesses.In addition to the illegal activities—principally gambling and narcotics—that have been the syndicates' chief source of income, they may also engage in nominally legitimate enterprises, such as loan companies (in underworld parlance, “the juice racket”) that charge usurious rates of interest and collect from delinquent debtors through threats and violence. They may also engage in labour racketeering, in which control is gained over a union's leadership so that the union's dues and other financial resources can be used for illegal enterprises. Real-estate firms, dry-cleaning establishments, waste-disposal firms, and vending-machine operations—all legally constituted businesses—when operated by the syndicate may include in their activities the elimination of competition through coercion, intimidation, and assassination. The hijacking of trucks carrying valuable, easily disposable merchandise has been another favoured activity of organized crime. In 1975 a federally sponsored study of such crime in the United States concluded that the total volume of activities controlled by organized crime amounted to more than $50 billion per year.The ability of organized crime to flourish in the United States has traditionally rested upon several factors. One factor has been the threats, intimidation, and bodily violence (including assassination) that a syndicate brings to bear to prevent victims or witnesses (including its own members) from informing on or testifying against its activities. Jury tampering and the bribing (bribery) of judges have been other tactics used to prevent successful government prosecutions. Bribery and payoffs, sometimes on a systematic and far-reaching scale, are useful tools for ensuring that municipal police forces tolerate organized crime's activities.The fact that many Americans did not believe that many of the rackets and other types of illegal gambling—which have provided the economic base for some of the uglier forms of organized crime—were innately immoral or socially destructive and therefore deserved a certain grudging tolerance on the part of law-enforcement agencies contributed to the prosperity of syndicate operations. Criminal organizations in the United States are best viewed as shifting coalitions, normally local or regional in scope.Criminal syndicates have also prospered outside the United States. For example, in Australia extensive narcotics, cargo theft, and labour racketeering rings have been discovered; in Japan there are gangs specializing in vice and extortion; in Asia organized groups, such as the Chinese Triads, engage in drug trafficking; and in Britain there are syndicates engaging in cargo theft at airports, vice, protection, and pornography. There also are many relatively short-term groups drawn together for specific projects, such as fraud and armed robbery, from a pool of long-term professional criminals.Apart from the drug trade, the principal form of organized crime in many developing countries is the black market, which involves criminal acts such as smuggling and corruption in the granting of licenses to import goods and to export foreign exchange. Armed robbery has been particularly popular and easy because of the widespread availability of arms supplied to nationalist movements by those seeking political destabilization of their own or other countries. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, organized-crime rings flourished in Russia. By the beginning of the 21st century, official Russian crime statistics had identified more than 5,000 organized-crime groups responsible for international money laundering, tax evasion, and assassinations of businessmen and politicians. One report even argued that Russia was on the “verge of becoming a criminal syndicalist state, dominated by a lethal mix of gangsters, corrupt officials, and dubious businessmen.” Members of the Russian criminal networks, vory v zakone (“thieves in law”), operated by a code of conduct that eschewed relatives and forming families.Additional ReadingA general overview of the characteristics of organized crime and its history is the subject of Paul Lunde, Organized Crime: An Inside Guide to the World's Most Successful Industry (2004). A global perspective on organized crime is provided in Emilio C. Viano (ed.), Global Organized Crime and International Security (1999). A lively analysis of the interaction between gangsters, businesspeople, politicians, and labour racketeers is William J. Chambliss, On the Take: From Petty Crooks to Presidents (1978). A study of the criminal organization and techniques of bankruptcy fraud and of the impact of control measures upon them is Michael Levi, The Phantom Capitalists: The Organisation and Control of Long-Firm Fraud (1981). Mary McIntosh, The Organisation of Crime (1975), provides a comparative and historical analysis of the way in which criminal organizations adapt to changes in law enforcement and the economy. Works focusing on the United States include Peter Reuter, Disorganized Crime: The Economics of the Visible Hand (1983), an examination of the structure and profitability of crime in the United States; James B. Jacobs, Christopher Panarella, and Jay Worthington, Busting the Mob: United States v. Cosa Nostra (1994), an account of law-enforcement efforts against organized crime in the United States; Robert J. Kelly, Encyclopedia of Organized Crime in the United States: From Capone's Chicago to the New Urban Underworld (2000), a general reference; and Michael Woodiwiss, Organized Crime and American Power: A History (2001), an examination of the history of organized crime in the United States. A racy account of the London underworld is Laurie Taylor, In the Underworld (1984).
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