- n.a crime, esp. against a person, that is motivated by hatred of the victim's race, ethnicity, religion, or gender
* * *In law, a crime directed at a person or persons on the basis of characteristics such as race, religion, ethnicity, or sexual orientation.The concept emerged in the U.S. in the late 1970s, and since then laws have been passed in many U.S. states mandating additional penalties for violent crimes motivated by bias or bigotry against particular groups. Several other Western countries, including Australia, Britain, and Canada, have adopted laws designed to curb violent crime against racial and religious minorities. For example, German law forbids public incitement and instigation of racial hatred, including the distribution of Nazi propaganda.
* * *▪ lawharassment, intimidation, or physical violence that is motivated by a bias against characteristics of the victim considered integral to his social identity, such as his race, ethnicity, or religion. Some relatively broad hate-crime laws also include sexual orientation and mental or physical disability among the characteristics that define a hate crime.The concept of hate crime emerged in the United States in the late 1970s. By the end of the 20th century, laws mandating additional penalties for bias-motivated crimes had been passed by the federal government and by most U.S. states. (Unlike many broader state laws, the federal law allowed for the prosecution of hate crimes motivated only by the colour, race, religion, or national origin of the victim.) Increasingly, criminal conduct motivated by bigotry came to be regarded as substantially different from, and in some respects more pernicious than, other kinds of crime. Reflecting the politics of the issue as well as the actual incidence of bias-motivated crime, racial and religious minorities and women have been recognized in many statutes as potential victims of hate crime, whereas other groups, such as the elderly and children, have not.Laws intended to curb hate crimes have been implemented in several other Western countries. Australia, for example, has outlawed at the federal, state, and territory level words and images that incite hatred toward particular racial, ethnic, and religious groups. Relying on existing discrimination law, Australia has also prohibited conduct that constitutes “vilification” or “racial hatred.” Britain and Canada have passed laws designed to curb violence directed at minority groups, and Germany has forbidden public incitement and the instigation of racial hatred, including the distribution of Nazi propaganda or literature liable to corrupt the youth. Most legislation outside the United States, however, has taken a narrow view of hate crime, focusing primarily on racial, ethnic, and religious violence, and in most non-Western countries there are no hate-crime laws. Nevertheless, by the beginning of the 21st century, civil rights organizations around the world were applying the term hate crime broadly to describe bias crimes involving various characteristics used to differentiate social groups.Critics of hate-crime laws have argued that they are redundant because they create additional penalties for acts that are already punishable under criminal law. They also charge that such laws treat victims of different groups unequally and that they punish the thoughts of offenders rather than merely their actions. Defenders of hate-crime laws argue that hate crimes are fundamentally different in character from other types of violent crime, in part because they threaten the safety of entire groups of people; they also note that the thoughts of the offender are taken into account in the definitions of other violent crimes, such as first- and second-degree murder. Despite its controversial nature, various forms of hate-crime law in the United States have withstood constitutional challenge.Valerie JennessAdditional ReadingValerie Jenness and Ryken Grattet, Making Hate a Crime: From Social Movement to Law Enforcement Practice (2001), is an analysis of hate-crime policy in the United States. A critique of hate-crime laws is provided in James B. Jacobs and Kimberly Potter, Criminal Law & Identity Politics (1998, reissued 2001). Leading researchers in the field give their views on the topic “Hate Crimes and Ethnic Conflict: A Comparative Perspective” in a special issue of American Behavioral Scientist, 45(4):571–755 (December 2001).
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hate crime — n: a crime that violates the victim s civil rights and that is motivated by hostility to the victim s race, religion, creed, national origin, sexual orientation, or gender Merriam Webster’s Dictionary of Law. Merriam Webster. 1996. hate crime … Law dictionary
hate crime — hate ,crime noun count or uncount * a crime that is done by someone because they hate the group that the VICTIM (=person who is attacked) belongs to … Usage of the words and phrases in modern English
hate crime — hate crimes N COUNT A hate crime is a crime, especially against people such as homosexuals and members of ethnic minorities, that is motivated by feelings of hatred … English dictionary
hate crime — n [U and C] a crime that is committed against someone only because they belong to a particular race, religion etc … Dictionary of contemporary English
hate crime — n. a crime, esp. against a person, that is motivated by hatred of the victim s race, ethnicity, religion, or gender … English World dictionary
Hate crime — Race hate redirects here. For the song by Eddy Grant, see Message Man. This article is about the crime. For the film by this name, see Hate Crime (film). Part of a series on Discriminat … Wikipedia
Hate crime — Als hate crimes (deutsch „Verbrechen aus Hass“, „Hasskriminalität“) werden Straftaten bezeichnet, bei denen das Opfer des Delikts vom Täter ausschließlich oder überwiegend nach dem Kriterium der Zugehörigkeit zu einer gesellschaftlichen Gruppe… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Hate Crime — Als hate crime (deutsch „Hassverbrechen“, Hasskriminalität) werden Straftaten bezeichnet, bei denen das Opfer des Delikts vom Täter ausschließlich oder überwiegend nach dem Kriterium der Zugehörigkeit zu einer gesellschaftlichen Gruppe gewählt… … Deutsch Wikipedia
hate crime — UK / US noun [countable/uncountable] Word forms hate crime : singular hate crime plural hate crimes a crime that is done by someone because they hate the group that the victim (= person who is attacked) belongs to … English dictionary
hate crime — crime that is committed because of racial or religious hatred … English contemporary dictionary