Golan Heights

Golan Heights [gō′län΄]
the hilly region northeast of the Sea of Galilee: part of SW Syria until occupation (1967) & annexation (1981) by Israel: also the Golan

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Arabic Al-Jawlān

Hilly area, southwestern Syria.

It overlooks the upper Jordan River valley; its maximum elevation is 7,297 ft (2,224 m). It was occupied by the Israeli army during the Six-Day War of 1967. After the Arab-Israeli war of 1973, a UN buffer zone was established between Syrians and Israelis in the heights. In 1981 Israel unilaterally annexed the part of the Golan that it held. Talks were started by the two countries in 2000 in an attempt to resolve the situation.

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also called  Golan Plateau , Arabic  Al-Jawlān  , Hebrew  Ramat Ha-Golan  or  Ha-Golan  
 hilly area overlooking the upper Jordan River valley on the west. The area was part of extreme southwestern Syria until 1967, when it came under Israeli military occupation, and in December 1981 Israel unilaterally annexed the part of the Golan it held. The area's name is from the biblical city of refuge Golan in Bashan (Deuteronomy 4:43; Joshua 20:8).

      Geographically, the Golan is bounded by the Jordan River and the Sea of Galilee on the west, Mount Hermon (Arabic: Jabal Al-Shaykh; Hebrew: Har Ḥermon) on the north, the seasonal Wadi Al-Ruqqād (a north-south branch of the Yarmūk River) on the east, and the Yarmūk River on the south. As a political unit the boundaries differ; Israel is the suzerain of almost all of the Golan except for a narrow strip in the east that follows the Israeli-Syrian armistice line of June 10, 1967, which was later modified by the separation of forces agreement of May 31, 1974. The Golan extends about 44 miles (71 km) from north to south and about 27 miles (43 km) from east to west at its widest point. It is roughly boat-shaped and has an area of 444 square miles (1,150 square km). The better agricultural land lies in its southern portion; the stony foothills of Mount Hermon in the north, with patches of woodland and scrub, are a stock-raising area. The Israeli portion of the Golan rises to 7,297 feet (2,224 metres) at its extreme northeast point on the Mount Hermon slopes.

      In 1894 the French-Jewish banker Baron Edmond de Rothschild bought a large tract of land for Jewish settlement in the Golan; he was followed by other groups in the United States, Canada, and Europe. Jewish colonization was attempted but was frustrated by the hostility of the Arab population and by the Ottoman land laws, which virtually forbade settlement by nonnatives. After World War I the Golan became part of the French mandate of Syria and in 1941 passed to independent Syria. After the Arab-Israeli War of 1948–49, Syria fortified the western crest of the Golan Heights, which commands the Ḥula Valley, the Sea of Galilee, and the upper Jordan River valley, all in Israel. In these sections many Israeli civilians were killed by Syrian artillery and sniper fire; agriculture and fishing were rendered difficult, and at times impossible.

      On the last two days (June 9–10, 1967) of the Six-Day War, the Israeli armed forces, after defeating Egypt and Jordan, turned their attention to Syria. Under cover of the Israel Air Force, engineer troops built access roads up the steep Golan Heights, which were then frontally assaulted by armoured vehicles and infantry. The Syrian defenders and most of the Arab inhabitants fled, and Syria asked for an armistice; fighting ceased on June 10. The heights were placed under Israeli military administration, and Golan was integrated into the communications and financial framework of Israel. By the late 1970s nearly 30 Jewish settlements had been established on the heights, and in 1981 Israel unilaterally annexed the area.

      A disengagement agreement between Israel and Syria, signed following the Arab-Israeli War of 1973, established a United Nations buffer zone in the Golan Heights, monitored by a UN Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF). The UNDOF mandate was renewed every six months thereafter. Negotiations between Syria and Israel, initiated during bilateral talks held in Madrid in 1991, continued intermittently until they broke down in 2000 over the future status of the heights.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Golan Heights — [gō′län΄] the hilly region northeast of the Sea of Galilee: part of SW Syria until occupation (1967) & annexation (1981) by Israel: also the Golan …   English World dictionary

  • Golan Heights — هضبة الجولان רמת הגולן …   Wikipedia

  • Golan Heights —    A zone east of the Huleh Valley and the Sea of Galilee that abuts Mount Hermon. It is a sparse territory some 41 miles long and 15 miles wide. The border between Israel and Syria has been in dispute since the establishment of the Jewish state… …   Historical Dictionary of Israel

  • Golan Heights — noun a fortified hilly area between southern Lebanon and southern Syria artillery on the Golan Heights can dominate a large area of Israel • Syn: ↑Golan • Instance Hypernyms: ↑geographical area, ↑geographic area, ↑geographical region, ↑geographic …   Useful english dictionary

  • Golan Heights — Go|lan Heights the Golan Heights a range of hills and mountains east of the Jordan River, occupied by Israel since 1967 …   Dictionary of contemporary English

  • Golan Heights — geographical name hilly region NE of Sea of Galilee; annexed by Israel 1981 …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • Golan Heights — noun A plateau straddling the border of Syria and Israel …   Wiktionary

  • Golan Heights — elevated area of land in northeastern Israel bordering on Lebanon and Syria that was conquered from Syria in 1967 …   English contemporary dictionary

  • Golan Heights — /goʊlən ˈhaɪts/ (say gohluhn huyts), /goʊlæn/ (say gohlan) plural noun a hilly area in the Middle East, possession of which is disputed by Syria and Israel; under Syrian control until annexed by Israel during the 1967 Arab–Israeli war, since when …   Australian English dictionary

  • Golan Heights Wind Farm — The Golan Heights Wind Farm is located on Mount Bnei Rasan ( he. הר בני רסן, Har Bnei Rasan, ar. الغسانية, Al Assanyieh), 5 km south of Quneitra on the Golan Heights, Israel, on 1050 m above sea level. The farm was built in 1992 by the Mey Eden… …   Wikipedia

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