Donets Basin

major industrial and coal-producing region in the lower valley of the Donets River

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Large mining and industrial region, southeastern Ukraine and southwestern Russia.

Notable for its coal and iron reserves, the exploited area of the coalfield covers nearly 9,000 sq mi (23,300 sq km) south of the Donets River. First mined in the early 19th century, by 1913 the Donets Basin was producing 87% of Russian coal. The coalfields adjoin the rich ironfield of Krivoi Rog, where an ironworks was set up in 1872 in Donetsk; by 1913 it was making 74% of all Russian pig iron. The area today is the largest single producing area of iron and steel in Ukraine and one of the world's major heavy-industrial complexes.

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Ukrainian  Donetskyy Baseyn , Russian  Donetsky Basseyn , byname  Donbas , or  Donbass 

      large mining and industrial region of southeastern Europe, notable for its large coal reserves. The coalfield lies in southeastern Ukraine and in the adjoining region of southwestern Russia. The principal exploited area of the field covers nearly 9,000 square miles (23,300 square km) south of the Donets River, but coal deposits also extend westward to the Dnieper River in the greater Donets Basin. Coal was first discovered in the Donets Basin in 1721, but exploitation did not begin until the early 19th century and became significant only after the first railway reached the area in 1869. Development in the last two decades of the 19th century was rapid, and by 1913 the Donets Basin was producing 87 percent of Russian coal. More than 100 mining communities eventually developed in the region. Despite erosion of its relative position by the development of new coalfields and despite setbacks in World War I, in the Russian Civil War following the October Revolution (1917), and in World War II, absolute coal production continued to increase until the 1970s. Annual production then began to decline.

      The Donets Basin still has large coal reserves, much of it of high quality. Of the proved reserves, about one-fourth are anthracite, concentrated chiefly at the eastern end of the field. The coal occurs in some 300 coal-bearing seams. A difficulty of the field is that seams are thin, averaging just under 3 feet (1 m), and only 40 are thick enough to be worked economically. Most thicker seams and those nearer the surface have been worked out, and mining is now deep—down to 2,000 feet (600 m) for lignite and 5,900 feet (1,800 m) for higher-quality bituminous and anthracite coals. The average mining depth is 1,150–1,300 feet (350–400 m).

      After several largely unsuccessful efforts to establish a metallurgical industry on the coalfield, an ironworks was set up in 1872 by a Welshman, John Hughes, at the site of present-day Donetsk. During the 1880s the Donets Basin developed into the principal iron- and steel-producing region of the country; by 1913 it was making 74 percent of all Russian pig iron. World War II caused heavy damage to plants and towns but led to postwar reconstruction with larger and more modernized enterprises. The area remains the largest single producing area of iron and steel in Ukraine and is one of the world's major metallurgical and heavy-industrial complexes. Iron ore is obtained from Kryvyy Rih to the west and from Kerch in the Crimea; manganese is mined at Nikopol and Marhanets on the Dnieper. The chief iron- and steel-producing towns of the basin, together with Luhansk, Kramatorsk, and other centres, have a range of large heavy-engineering industries. The chemical industry is well developed, based on coking by-products and rock salt mined in the Donets Basin near Artemivsk; the main chemical towns are Artemivsk and Slov'yansk. Mercury is also mined in the Donets Basin, and cement making is important. A wide range of light and consumer-goods industries have been introduced to diversify the economy and to supply the needs of the large urban populations.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Donets Basin — major industrial and coal producing region in the lower valley of the Donets River …   English World dictionary

  • Donets Basin — Donbas and Donbass redirect here. For other uses, see Donbas (disambiguation). Simplified map of the Donets Basin on the map of Ukraine …   Wikipedia

  • Donets Basin — /ˌdɒnɛts ˈbeɪsən/ (say .donets baysuhn), /daˌnjɛts/ (say dah.nyets) noun an area south of the Donets River, in Eastern Ukraine and south western Russia; important coalmining region and industrial area. 24 994 km2. Also, Donbass …   Australian English dictionary

  • Donets Basin — or Donbass or Donbas geographical name region E Ukraine SW of the Donets …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • Donets Basin — noun an industrial region in the Ukraine • Syn: ↑Donbass, ↑Donbas • Instance Hypernyms: ↑geographical area, ↑geographic area, ↑geographical region, ↑geographic region • Pa …   Useful english dictionary

  • Donets River — River, southwestern Russia and eastern Ukraine. Rising in the Central Russian Upland, it winds south and east through Russia and Ukraine for some 650 mi (1,050 km) to join the Don River below Konstantinovsk. It flows along the northern Donets… …   Universalium

  • basin — basinal, adj. basined, adj. basinlike, adj. /bay seuhn/, n. 1. a circular container with a greater width than depth, becoming smaller toward the bottom, used chiefly to hold water or other liquid, esp. for washing. 2. any container of similar… …   Universalium

  • Donets — /deuh nets /; Russ. /du nyets /, n. 1. a river rising in the SW Russian Federation near Belgorod, flowing SE through Ukraine to the Don River. ab. 650 mi. (1045 km) long. 2. Also called Donets Basin. an area S of this river, in E Ukraine: coal… …   Universalium

  • Donets — /deuh nets /; Russ. /du nyets /, n. 1. a river rising in the SW Russian Federation near Belgorod, flowing SE through Ukraine to the Don River. ab. 650 mi. (1045 km) long. 2. Also called Donets Basin. an area S of this river, in E Ukraine: coal… …   Useful english dictionary

  • Seversky Donets River — Donetz redirects here. For the Soviet cargo ship, see SS Donetz. Seversky Donets Sviatohirsk Monastery in Donetsk Oblast, Ukraine Origin Russia …   Wikipedia

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