chloral hydrate

n.
a colorless, crystalline compound, CCl3·CH(OH) 2, used chiefly as a sedative

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drug
also called  chloral 

      the first synthetically produced sedative-hypnotic drug, commonly used in the late 19th century to treat insomnia and still occasionally used to reduce anxiety or produce sleep before surgery. Chloral hydrate acts as a depressant on the central nervous system (nervous system, human), with sedative effects similar to those of barbiturates (barbiturate).

      Chloral hydrate (trichloroacetaldehyde monohydrate) was first synthesized in 1832, but it was not introduced into medicine until 1869, when Mathias E.O. Liebreich discovered its effectiveness in inducing sleep. A therapeutic dose produces a deep sleep lasting four to eight hours with few aftereffects, but habitual use of the drug results in addiction—a fact quickly noted in the medical literature of the late 19th and the early 20th century. Symptoms of overdose may include deep stupor, dilation of blood vessels, fall in blood pressure and body temperature, and slowed respiration. In a severe overdose, death usually occurs within 5 to 10 hours. Chloral hydrate was the primary ingredient, along with alcohol, of the “knockout drops” or “Mickey Finns” of popular lore. With the development of safer and more effective drugs, the use of chloral hydrate has declined. When used, it is administered as gel capsules or rectal suppositories.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Chloral hydrate — IUPAC name 2,2,2 trichloroethane 1,1 diol …   Wikipedia

  • chloral hydrate — n. 1. a chemical substance ({CCl3.CH(OH)2}) which is a hydrate of trichloroacetaldehyde. It crystallizes as white monoclinic plates, obtained by treating chloral with water. It produces sleep when taken internally or hypodermically, and is used… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • chloral hydrate — n a bitter white crystalline drug C2H3Cl3O2 used as a hypnotic and sedative or in knockout drops * * * a sedative and hypnotic drug administered by mouth as a syrup, mainly in children and the elderly, to induce sleep; its derivative chloral… …   Medical dictionary

  • chloral hydrate — n. a colorless, crystalline compound, CCl3·CH(OH) 2, used chiefly as a sedative …   English World dictionary

  • chloral hydrate — chloralio hidratas statusas T sritis chemija formulė CCl₃CH(OH)₂ atitikmenys: angl. chloral hydrate rus. хлоральгидрат ryšiai: sinonimas – 2,2,2 trichloretan 1,1 diolis …   Chemijos terminų aiškinamasis žodynas

  • chloral hydrate — /ˌklɔrəl ˈhaɪdreɪt/ (say .klawruhl huydrayt) noun a white, crystalline substance, CCl3CH(OH)2, formed by combining liquid chloral with water, and used as a hypnotic …   Australian English dictionary

  • chloral hydrate — noun Date: 1874 a bitter white crystalline drug C2H3Cl3O2 used as a hypnotic and sedative or in knockout drops …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • chloral hydrate — a sedative and hypnotic drug formerly widely used (as an oral solution) to induce sleep, mainly in children and the elderly; its derivative cloral betaine (Welldorm) is formulated as tablets. Nausea, vomiting, and other gastrointestinal side… …   The new mediacal dictionary

  • chloral hydrate — noun a colorless crystalline drug used as a sedative; irritates the stomach and can be addictive • Hypernyms: ↑sedative, ↑sedative drug, ↑depressant, ↑downer • Hyponyms: ↑knockout drops …   Useful english dictionary

  • Acetylglycinamide chloral hydrate — drugbox IUPAC name = CAS number = ATC prefix = N05 ATC suffix = CC03 PubChem = DrugBank = chemical formula = molecular weight = bioavailability = protein bound = metabolism = elimination half life = excretion = pregnancy AU = pregnancy US =… …   Wikipedia

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