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In industry, the development and application of standards that make it possible to manufacture a large volume of interchangeable parts.

Standardization may focus on engineering standards, such as properties of materials, fits and tolerances, and drafting practices; or on product standards, which detail the attributes of manufactured items and are embodied in formulas, descriptions, drawings, or models. Adoption of standards makes it easier for firms to communicate with their suppliers. Standards are also used within industries to prevent conflict and duplication of effort. Governmental departments, trade associations, and technical associations help to set standards within industries; these are coordinated and promoted by organizations such as the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).

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      in industry, the development and application of standards that permit large production runs of component parts that can be readily fitted to other parts without adjustment. Standardization allows for clear communication between industry and its suppliers, relatively low cost, and manufacture on the basis of interchangeable parts.

      A standard is that which has been selected as a model to which objects or actions may be compared. Standards for industry may be devices and instruments used to regulate colour, size, weight, and other product attributes, or they may be physical models. Standards may also be written mathematical or symbolical descriptions, drawings, or formulas setting forth the important features of objects to be produced or actions to be performed. Standards that are applied in an industrial setting include engineering standards, such as properties of materials, fits and tolerances, terminology, and drafting practices; and product standards intended to describe attributes and ingredients of manufactured items and embodied in drawings, formulas, materials lists, descriptions, or models.

      Certain fundamental standards among firms are required to prevent conflict and duplication of effort. The standards activities of governmental departments, trade associations, and technical associations serve in part to meet national standards needs, but one specialized standardizing organization is needed to coordinate the diverse standardization activities of many different types of organizations and promote general acceptance of basic standards. In the United States the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) performs this function. It does not initiate or write standards but provides the means by which national engineering, safety, and industrial standards can be coordinated. All interested groups may participate in the decision-making process, and compliance with the national standard is voluntary. The international body that serves this function is the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). Developing an international standard presents the greater challenge because of the breadth of representation and the diversity of needs and viewpoints that must be reconciled.

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Universalium. 2010.

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