Na·khi·che·van (nə-kē'chə-vänʹ, -KHē'-)
See Naxçivan.

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Azerbaijani  Naxçivan 

      capital of the Nakhichevan autonomous republic, in Azerbaijan. It lies along the Nakhichevan River about 170 miles (270 km) south-southeast of Tbilisi. Nakhichevan is extremely old, dated by some archaeologists to about 1500 BC. Armenian tradition ascribes the founding of the city to Noah. Until 1828 it was capital of the khanate of Nakhichevan, and it became capital of the autonomous republic in 1924. Historically a trade and handicrafts centre, it now has varied industries, in particular food processing, furniture, leather, and building materials. There is a museum of local culture and technical colleges. Pop. (1991 est.) 61,700.

Azerbaijani  Naxçivan 

      exclave and autonomous republic of Azerbaijan, in the southern part of the Transcaucasian plateau. It is bounded by Armenia to the north and east, Iran to the south and west, and Turkey to the west. The republic, which is mostly mountainous except for a plain in the west and southwest, lies to the east and north of the middle Aras (Araks) River, which forms the frontier with Iran and Turkey. The region is subject to earthquakes, that of 1931 having been particularly severe. Winter temperatures in the dry continental climate average 20° to 24° F (-7° to -4° C); summer temperatures range from 75° to 84° F (24° to 29° C). The scarcity of precipitation on the plain (less than 20 inches [500 mm] annually) produces a steppe type of vegetation. In the mountains, where precipitation averages 25 to 30 inches (630 to 760 mm) annually, the flora is mountainous steppe, with dwarf oak and Iberian maple occurring in the upper valleys. Gray alluvial soils prevail in the plain, giving way above 3,300 feet (1,000 m) to brown and chestnut soils.

      The republic, especially the capital city of Nakhichevan, has a long history dating back to about 1500 BC. Historically the Persians, Mongols, and Turks, competed for the area, but it passed to Russia in 1828, and in 1924 it became an autonomous republic of the Soviet Union. Nakhichevan became part of independent Azerbaijan in 1991. Azerbaijanis constitute virtually the entire population, though there are also small numbers of Armenians and Russians. Chief cities, besides the capital, are Ordubad and Culfa (Dzhulfa).

      Agriculture, the principal economic activity, is carried on with the aid of irrigation in the plains. The most important crops are grains (winter wheat, some spring wheat, and barley), cotton, tobacco, mulberries for silkworms, and fruits. Sheep raising provides wool for the Azerbaijan carpet industry. Cattle and goats also are raised. There are mineral-water springs in the foothills. Industrial activity is limited to mining (salt, molybdenum, and lead), cotton ginning, silk textile production, and food processing. The Yerevan-Baku railway follows the Aras valley through the republic, and motor roads link the capital to Yerevan, to Culfa on the Iranian frontier, and to Yevlax in Azerbaijan proper. Area 2,100 square miles (5,500 square km). Pop. (1991 est.) 305,700.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

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