Nobel Prize winners by year 4

Table
Nobel Prize winners by year (1941–50)
year category name country* achievement literary area
1943
chemistry Hevesy, Georg Charles von Hungary use of isotopes as tracers in chemical research
physics Stern, Otto U.S. discovery of the magnetic moment of the proton
physiology/
medicine Dam, Henrik Denmark discovery of vitamin K
physiology/
medicine Doisy, Edward Adelbert U.S. discovery of chemical nature of vitamin K
1944
chemistry Hahn, Otto Germany discovery of the fission of heavy nuclei
literature Jensen, Johannes V. Denmark novelist
peace International Committee of the Red Cross (founded 1863)
physics Rabi, Isidor Isaac U.S. resonance method for registration of various properties of atomic nuclei
physiology/
medicine Erlanger, Joseph U.S. researches on differentiated functions of nerve fibres
physiology/
medicine Gasser, Herbert Spencer U.S. researches on differentiated functions of nerve fibres
1945
chemistry Virtanen, Artturi Ilmari Finland invention of fodder preservation method
literature Mistral, Gabriela Chile poet
peace Hull, Cordell U.S.
physics Pauli, Wolfgang Austria discovery of the exclusion principle of electrons
physiology/
medicine Chain, Sir Ernst Boris U.K. discovery of penicillin and its curative value
physiology/
medicine Fleming, Sir Alexander U.K. discovery of penicillin and its curative value
physiology/
medicine Florey, Howard Walter Florey, Baron Australia discovery of penicillin and its curative value
1946
chemistry Northrop, John Howard U.S. preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in pure form
chemistry Stanley, Wendell Meredith U.S. preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in pure form
chemistry Sumner, James Batcheller U.S. discovery of enzyme crystallization
literature Hesse, Hermann Switzerland novelist
peace Balch, Emily Greene U.S.
peace Mott, John R. U.S.
physics Bridgman, Percy Williams U.S. discoveries in the domain of high-pressure physics
physiology/
medicine Muller, Hermann Joseph U.S. production of mutations by X-ray irradiation
1947
chemistry Robinson, Sir Robert U.K. investigation of alkaloids and other plant products
literature Gide, André France novelist, essayist
peace American Friends Service Committee U.S.
peace Friends Service Council (FSC) U.K.
physics Appleton, Sir Edward Victor U.K. discovery of Appleton layer in upper atmosphere
physiology/
medicine Cori, Carl and Gerty U.S. discovery of how glycogen is catalytically converted
physiology/
medicine Houssay, Bernardo Alberto Argentina pituitary hormone function in sugar metabolism
1948
chemistry Tiselius, Arne Sweden researches in electrophoresis and adsorption analysis; serum proteins
literature Eliot, T.S. U.K. poet, critic
physics Blackett, Patrick M.S. U.K. discoveries in the domain of nuclear physics and cosmic radiation
physiology/
medicine Müller, Paul Hermann Switzerland properties of DDT
1949
chemistry Giauque, William Francis U.S. behaviour of substances at extremely low temperatures
literature Faulkner, William U.S. novelist
peace Boyd-Orr of Brechin Mearns, John Boyd Orr, Baron U.K.
physics Yukawa Hideki Japan prediction of the existence of mesons
physiology/
medicine Egas Moniz, António Portugal therapeutic value of leucotomy in psychoses
physiology/
medicine Hess, Walter Rudolf Switzerland discovery of function of interbrain
1950
chemistry Alder, Kurt West Germany discovery and development of diene synthesis
chemistry Diels, Otto Paul Hermann West Germany discovery and development of diene synthesis
literature Russell, Bertrand U.K. philosopher
peace Bunche, Ralph U.S.
physics Powell, Cecil Frank U.K. photographic method of studying nuclear processes; discoveries concerning mesons
physiology/
medicine Hench, Philip Showalter U.S. research on adrenal cortex hormones, their structure and biological effects
physiology/
medicine Kendall, Edward Calvin U.S. research on adrenal cortex hormones, their structure and biological effects
physiology/
medicine Reichstein, Tadeus Switzerland research on adrenal cortex hormones, their structure and biological effects
*Nationality given is the citizenship of recipient at the time award was made. Prizes may be withheld or not awarded in years when no worthy recipient can be found or when the world situation (e.g., World Wars I and II) prevents the gathering of information needed to reach a decision.
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Universalium. 2010.

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