Sulfate minerals

Table
Sulfate minerals
name colour lustre Mohs hardness specific gravity
alum colourless; white vitreous 2–2½ 1.8
alunite white; grayish, yellowish, reddish, reddish brown vitreous 3½–4 2.6–2.9
alunogen white; yellowish or reddish vitreous to silky 1½–2 1.8
anglesite colourless to white; often tinted gray, yellow, green, or blue adamantine to resinous or vitreous 2½–3 6.4
anhydrite colourless to bluish or violet vitreous to pearly 3½ 3.0
antlerite emerald to blackish green; light green vitreous 3½ 3.9
barite colourless to white; also variable vitreous to resinous 3–3½ 4.5
botryogen light to dark orange red vitreous 2–2½ 2.1
brochantite emerald to blackish green; light green vitreous 3½–4 4.0
caledonite deep verdigris green or bluish green resinous 2½–3 5.8
celestite pale blue; white, reddish, greenish, brownish vitreous 3–3½ 4.0
chalcanthite various shades of blue vitreous 2½ 2.3
coquimbite pale violet to deep purple vitreous 2½ 2.1
epsomite colourless; aggregates are white vitreous; silky to earthy (fibrous) 2–2½ 1.7
glauberite gray; yellowish vitreous to slightly waxy 2½–3 2.75–2.85
gypsum colourless; white, gray, brownish, yellowish (massive) subvitreous 2 (a hardness standard) 2.3
halotrichite colourless to white vitreous 1.5 1.7 (pick) to 1.9 (halo)
jarosite ochre yellow to dark brown subadamantine to vitreous; resinous on fracture 2½–3½ 2.9–3.3
kainite colourless; gray, blue, violet, yellowish, reddish vitreous 2½–3 2.2
kieserite colourless; grayish white, yellowish vitreous 3.5 2.6
linarite deep azure blue vitreous to subadamantine 2.5 5.3
mirabilite colourless to white vitreous 1½–2 1.5
plumbojarosite golden brown to dark brown dull to glistening or silky soft 3.7
polyhalite colourless; white or gray; often salmon pink from included iron oxide vitreous to resinous 3.5 2.8
thenardite colourless; reddish, grayish, yellowish, or yellow brown vitreous to resinous 2½–3 2.7
name habit fracture or cleavage refractive indices crystal system
alum columnar or granular massive conchoidal fracture n = 1.453–1.466 isometric
alunite granular to dense massive conchoidal fracture omega = 1.572
epsilon = 1.592 hexagonal
alunogen fibrous masses and crusts one perfect cleavage alpha = 1.459–1.475
beta = 1.461–1.478
gamma = 1.884–1.931 triclinic
anglesite granular to compact massive; tabular or prismatic crystals one good, one distinct cleavage alpha = 1.868–1.913
beta = 1.873–1.918
gamma = 1.884–1.931 orthorhombic
anhydrite granular or fibrous massive; concretionary (tripestone) two perfect, one good cleavage alpha = 1.567–1.580
beta = 1.572–1.586
gamma = 1.610–1.625 orthorhombic
antlerite thick tabular crystals one perfect cleavage alpha = 1.726
beta = 1.738
gamma = 1.789 orthorhombic
barite usually in tabular crystals; rosettes (desert roses); massive one perfect, one good cleavage alpha = 1.633–1.648
beta = 1.634–1.649
gamma = 1.645–1.661 orthorhombic
botryogen reniform, botryoidal, or globular aggregates one perfect, one good cleavage alpha = 1.523
beta = 1.530
gamma = 1.582 monoclinic
brochantite prismatic to hairlike crystal and crystal aggregates; granular massive; crusts one perfect cleavage alpha = 1.728
beta = 1.771
gamma = 1.800 monoclinic
caledonite coating of small elongated crystals one perfect cleavage alpha = 1.815–1.821
beta = 1.863–1.869
gamma = 1.906–1.912 orthorhombic
celestite tabular crystals; fibrous massive one perfect, one good cleavage alpha = 1.618–1.632
beta = 1.620–1.634
gamma = 1.627–1.642 orthorhombic
chalcanthite short prismatic crystals; granular masses; stalactites and reniform masses conchoidal fracture alpha = 1.514
beta = 1.537
gamma = 1.543 triclinic
coquimbite prismatic and pyramidal crystals; granular massive omega = 1.536
epsilon = 1.572 hexagonal
epsomite fibrous or hairlike crusts; woolly efflorescences one perfect cleavage alpha = 1.430–1.440
beta = 1.452–1.462
gamma = 1.457–1.469 orthorhombic
glauberite tabular, dipyramidal, or prismatic crystals one perfect cleavage alpha = 1.515
beta = 1.535
gamma = 1.536 monoclinic
gypsum elongated tabular crystals (some 5 ft long; others twisted or bent); granular or fibrous masses; rosettes one perfect cleavage alpha = 1.515–1.523
beta = 1.516–1.526
gamma = 1.524–1.532 monoclinic
halotrichite aggregates of hairlike crystals conchoidal fracture alpha = 1.475–1.480
beta = 1.480–1.486
gamma = 1.483–1.490 monoclinic
jarosite minute crystals; crusts; granular or fibrous massive one distinct cleavage omega = 1.82
epsilon = 1.715 hexagonal
kainite granular massive; crystalline coatings one perfect cleavage alpha = 1.494
beta = 1.505
gamma = 1.516 monoclinic
kieserite granular massive, intergrown with other salts two perfect cleavages alpha = 1.520
beta = 1.533
gamma = 1.584 monoclinic
linarite elongated tabular crystals, either singly or in groups one perfect cleavage; conchoidal fracture alpha = 1.809
beta = 1.839
gamma = 1.859 monoclinic
mirabilite short prisms; lathlike or tabular crystals; crusts or fibrous masses; granular massive one perfect cleavage alpha = 1.391–1.397
beta = 1.393–1.410
gamma = 1.395–1.411 monoclinic
plumbojarosite crusts, lumps, compact masses of microscopic hexagonal plates one fair cleavage omega = 1.875
epsilon = 1.786 hexagonal
polyhalite fibrous to foliated massive one perfect cleavage alpha = 1.547
beta = 1.560
gamma = 1.567 triclinic
thenardite rather large crystals; crusts, efflorescences one perfect, one fair cleavage alpha = 1.464–1.471
beta = 1.473–1.477
gamma = 1.481–1.485 orthorhombic
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Universalium. 2010.

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