Oxide minerals

Table
Oxide minerals
name colour lustre Mohs hardness specific gravity
anatase brown to indigo blue and black; also variable adamantine to metallic adamantine 5½–6 3.8–4.0
boehmite white, when pure 3 3.0–3.1
brookite various browns metallic adamantine to submetallic 5½–6 4.1–4.2
brucite white to pale green, gray, or blue waxy to vitreous 2½ 2.4
cassiterite reddish or yellowish brown to brownish black adamantine to metallic adamantine, usually splendent 6–7 7.0
chromite black metallic 5½ 4.5–4.8
chrysoberyl variable vitreous 8½ 3.6–3.8
columbite iron black to brownish black; often with iridescent tarnish 6–6½ 5.2 (columbite) to 8.0 (tantalite)
corundum red (ruby); blue (sapphire); also variable adamantine to vitreous 9 (a hardness standard) 4.0–4.1
cuprite various shades of red adamantine to earthy 3½–4 6.1
delafossite black metallic 5½ 5.4–5.5
diaspore white, grayish white, colourless; variable brilliant vitreous 6½–7 3.2–3.5
euxenite black brilliant submetallic to greasy or vitreous 5½–6½ 5.3–5.9
franklinite brownish black to black metallic to semimetallic 5½–6½ 5.1–5.2
gibbsite white; grayish, greenish, reddish white vitreous 2½–3½ 2.3–2.4
goethite blackish brown (crystals); yellowish or reddish brown adamantine-metallic 5–5½ 3.3–4.3
hausmannite brownish black submetallic 5½ 4.8
hematite steel gray; dull to bright red metallic or submetallic to dull 5–6 5.3
ilmenite iron black metallic to submetallic 5–6 4.7–4.8
lepidocrocite ruby red to reddish brown submetallic 5 4.0–4.1
litharge red greasy to dull 2 9.1–9.2
magnetite black to brownish black metallic to semimetallic 5½–6½ 5.2
manganite dark steel gray to iron black submetallic 4 4.3–4.4
massicot sulfur to orpiment yellow greasy to dull 2 9.6
periclase colourless to grayish; also green, yellow, or black vitreous 5½–6 3.6–3.7
perovskite (often containing rare earths) black; grayish or brownish black; reddish brown to yellow adamantine to metallic 5½ 4.0–4.3
psilomelane iron black to dark steel gray submetallic to dull 5–6 4.7
pyrochlore brown to black (pyro); pale yellow to brown (micro) vitreous or resinous 5–5½ 4.2–6.4
pyrolusite light steel gray to iron black metallic 2–6 4.4–5.0
rutile reddish brown to red; variable metallic adamantine 6–6½ 4.2–5.5
spinel various vitreous 7½–8 3.55
tenorite steel or iron gray to black metallic 3½ 5.8–6.4
thorianite dark gray to brownish black and bluish hornlike to submetallic 6½ 9.7–9.9
uraninite steel to velvet black; grayish, greenish submetallic to greasy or dull 5–6 6.5–8.5 (massive); 8.0–10.0 (crystals)
name habit fracture or cleavage refractive indices or polished section data crystal system
anatase pyramidal or tabular crystals two perfect cleavages omega = 2.561
epsilon = 2.488
extremely variable tetragonal
boehmite disseminated or in pisolitic aggregates one very good cleavage alpha = 1.64–1.65
beta = 1.65–1.66
gamma = 1.65–1.67 orthorhombic
brookite only as crystals, usually tabular subconchoidal to uneven fracture alpha = 2.583
beta = 2.585
gamma = 2.700–2.741 orthorhombic
brucite tabular crystals; platy aggregates; fibrous or foliated massive one perfect cleavage omega = 1.56–1.59
epsilon = 1.58–1.60 hexagonal
cassiterite repeatedly twinned crystals; crusts and concretions one imperfect cleavage omega = 1.984–2.048
epsilon = 2.082–2.140
light gray; strongly anisotropic tetragonal
chromite granular to compact massive no cleavage; uneven fracture n = 2.08–2.16
brownish gray-white; isotropic isometric
chrysoberyl tabular or prismatic, commonly twinned, crystals one distinct cleavage alpha = 1.746
beta = 1.748
gamma = 1.756 orthorhombic
columbite prismatic crystals, often in large groups; massive one distinct cleavage brownish gray-white; weakly anisotropic orthorhombic
corundum pyramidal or barrel-shaped crystals; large blocks; rounded grains no cleavage; uneven to conchoidal fracture omega = 1.767–1.772
epsilon = 1.759–1.763 hexagonal
cuprite octahedral, cubic, or capillary crystals; granular or earthy massive conchoidal to uneven fracture n = 2.849
bluish white; anomalously anisotropic and plechroic isometric
delafossite tabular crystals; botryoidal crusts one imperfect cleavage rosy brown-white; strongly anisotropic; distinctly pleochroic hexagonal
diaspore thin, platy crystals; scaly massive; disseminated one perfect cleavage, one less so alpha = 1.682–1.706
beta = 1.705–1.725
gamma = 1.730–1.752 orthorhombic
euxenite prismatic crystals; massive conchoidal to subconchoidal fracture n = 2.06–2.25 orthorhombic
franklinite octahedral crystals; granular massive n = about 2.36
white; isotropic isometric
gibbsite tabular crystals; crusts and coatings; compact earthy one perfect cleavage alpha = 1.56–1.58
beta = 1.56–1.58
gamma = 1.58–1.60 monoclinic
goethite prismatic crystals; massive one perfect cleavage, one less so alpha = 2.260–2.275
beta = 2.393–2.409
gamma = 2.398–2.515
gray; strongly anisotropic orthorhombic
hausmannite pseudo-octahedral crystals; granular massive one nearly perfect cleavage omega = 2.43–2.48
epsilon = 2.13–2.17
gray-white; distinctly anisotropic tetragonal
hematite tabular crystals; rosettes; columnar or fibrous massive; earthy massive; reniform masses no cleavage omega = 2.90–3.22
epsilon = 2.69–2.94
anisotropic; weakly pleochroic; often shows lamellar twinning hexagonal
ilmenite thick, tabular crystals; compact massive; grains no cleavage; conchoidal fracture n = about 2.7 grayish white; anisotropic hexagonal
lepidocrocite flattened scales; isolated rounded crystals; massive one perfect cleavage, one less so alpha = 1.94
beta = 2.20
gamma = 2.51
gray-white; strongly anisotropic and pleochroic orthorhombic
litharge crusts; alteration product on massicot one cleavage omega = 2.665
epsilon = 2.535 tetragonal
magnetite octahedral crystals; granular massive n = 2.42
brownish gray; isotropic isometric
manganite prismatic crystals, often in bundles; fibrous massive one very perfect cleavage, two less so alpha = 2.25
beta = 2.25
gamma = 2.53
brownish gray-white; anisotropic; weakly pleochroic monoclinic
massicot earthy or scaly massive two cleavages alpha = 2.51
beta = 2.61
gamma = 2.71 orthorhombic
periclase irregular, rounded grains; octahedral crystals one perfect cleavage n = 1.730–1.746 isometric
perovskite (often containing rare earths) cubic crystals uneven to subconchoidal fracture n = 2.30–2.38
dark bluish gray orthorhombic
psilomelane massive; crusts; stalactites; earthy masses orthorhombic
pyrochlore octahedral crystals; irregular masses subconchoidal to uneven fracture n = 1.93–2.02 isometric
pyrolusite columnar or fibrous massive; coatings and concretions one perfect cleavage cream-white; distinctly anisotropic; very weakly pleochroic tetragonal
rutile slender to capillary prismatic crystals; granular massive; as inclusions, often oriented one distinct cleavage omega = 2.556–2.651
epsilon = 2.829–2.895 tetragonal
spinel octahedral crystals; round or embedded grains; granular to compact massive n = 1.715–1.725 isometric
tenorite thin aggregates or laths; curved plates or scales; earthy masses conchoidal fracture light gray-white; strongly anisotropic; pleochroic monoclinic
thorianite rounded cubic crystals uneven to subconchoidal fracture n = about 2.2 (variable) isotropic isometric
uraninite crystals; massive; dendritic aggregates of crystals uneven to conchoidal fracture light brownish gray; isotropic isometric
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Universalium. 2010.

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