Native elements

Table
Native elements
name colour lustre Mohs hardness specific gravity habit or form
allemontite tin-white; reddish gray metallic 3–4 5.8–6.2 kidneylike masses
amalgam
gold-amalgam yellowish metallic 15.5 lumps or grains
moschellandsbergite silver-white bright metallic 3½ 13.5–13.7 dodecahedrons; massive
potarite silver-white bright metallic 3½ 13.5–16.1 grains or nuggets
antimony tin-white metallic 3–3½ 6.6–6.7 massive
arsenic tin-white, tarnishing to dark gray nearly metallic on fresh surfaces 3½ 5.6–5.8 granular massive; concentric nodules
arsenolamprite lead-gray brilliant metallic 2 5.3–5.5 massive
bismuth silver-white, with reddish hue; tarnishes iridescent metallic 2–2½ 9.7–9.8 network or treelike crystal groups
carbon
diamond pale to deep yellow or brown; white to blue-white; sometimes variable adamantine to greasy 10 3.5 flattened octahedrons; dodecahedrons
graphite black to dark steel-gray metallic 1–2 2.1–2.2 platy or flaky massive
cohenite tin-white, tarnishes to light bronze or gold-yellow 5½–6 7.2–7.7 elongated tabular crystals
copper light rose, tarnishes quickly to copper-red and brown metallic 2½–3 8.95 plates and scales; wirelike, treelike crystal groups; twisted bands; malformed crystals
gold gold-yellow (when pure); silver-white to orange-red metallic 2½–3 19.3 elongated or flattened crystals; wirelike, treelike, or spongy forms
iridosmine tin-white to light steel-gray metallic 6–7 19.0–21.0 flakes or flattened grains
iron steel-gray to iron-black metallic 4 7.3–7.9 small blisters or large masses (terrestrial); plates and lamellar masses intergrown with nickel-iron (meteoritic)
lead lead-gray; gray-white on fresh surfaces dull; metallic on fresh surfaces 1½ 11.4 rounded masses; thin plates
mercury tin-white very brilliant metallic 13.596 isolated drops; occasionally in larger liquid masses
nickel-iron silver- to grayish-white metallic 5 7.8–8.2 pebbles, grains, fine scales (terrestrial); intergrown with or bordering meteoritic iron (meteoritic)
palladium whitish steel-gray metallic 4½–5 11.9 grains
platiniridium yellowish silver-white; gray on fresh surfaces metallic 6–7 22.6–22.8 rounded or angular grains
platinum whitish steel-gray to dark gray metallic 4–4½ 14–19 grains or scales; sometimes in lumps or nuggets
schreibersite silver- to tin-white; tarnishes to brass-yellow or brown highly metallic 6½–7 7.0–7.3 plates; rods or needles
selenium gray metallic 2 4.8 crystals, often hollow or tubelike; glassy drops
silver silver-white; tarnishes gray to black metallic 2½–3 10.1–11.1 (10.5 pure) crystals, often in elongated, wirelike, or treelike groups; massive as scales or coating
sulfur
rhombic (alpha-sulfur) sulfur-, straw- to honey-yellow; yellowish brown or gray, greenish, reddish resinous to greasy 1½–2½ 2.07 transparent to translucent tabular crystals; spherical or kidneylike masses; crusts; powder
monoclinic (beta-sulfur) light yellow: nearly colourless; brownish due to included organic matter slightly greater than alpha-sulfur 1.958, 1.982 thick tabular or elongated crystals
nacreous (gamma-sulfur) light yellow; nearly colourless adamantine low less than alpha-sulfur minute transparent crystals
tantalum grayish yellow bright 6–7 11.2 minute crystals; fine grains
tellurium tin-white metallic 2–2½ 6.1–6.3 columnar to fine granular massive; minute crystals
tin tin-white metallic 2 7.3 irregular rounded grains; natural crystals unknown
zinc slightly grayish white metallic 2 6.9–7.2
name fracture or cleavage refractive index or polished section data crystal system remarks
allemontite one perfect cleavage fine graphic intergrowth of allemontite with arsenic or antimony hexagonal
amalgam
gold-amalgam conchoidal fracture isometric
moschellandsbergite two distinct cleavages isometric
potarite intergrowth of "potarite groundmass" (white, isotropic, high reflectivity) and "potarite inclusions" (light gray; anisotropic) isometric
antimony one perfect cleavage; two less so brilliant white; very strong reflectivity hexagonal
arsenic one perfect cleavage white; strong reflectivity; anisotropic hexagonal
arsenolamprite one perfect cleavage may be either impure native arsenic or a distinct modification
bismuth one perfect and one good cleavage brilliant creamy white, tarnishing yellow; anisotropic hexagonal sectile; when heated, somewhat malleable
carbon
diamond one perfect cleavage; conchoidal fracture n = 2.4175 isometric triboelectric; strong dispersion
graphite one perfect cleavage pleochroism and birefringence extreme hexagonal electrical conductor; greasy feel; thermoelectrically negative; thin fragments transparent and deep blue
cohenite three cleavages orthorhombic strongly magnetic
copper no cleavage; hackly fracture rose-white; isotropic; strong reflectivity isometric highly ductile and malleable
gold no cleavage; hackly fracture brilliant gold-yellow; isotropic; high reflectivity isometric very ductile and malleable
iridosmine one perfect cleavage slightly yellowish white hexagonal slightly malleable; forms solid solution with siserskite, (Os, Ir), ranging from 77% Ir to almost 80% Os
iron one cleavage; hackly fracture white; isotropic isometric magnetic; malleable
lead no cleavage fresh surfaces gray-white, isotropic, high reflectivity; quickly dulled isometric very malleable; somewhat ductile
mercury hexagonal (at −39 °C) liquid at normal temperatures
nickel-iron no cleavage isometric strongly magnetic; malleable; flexible
palladium no cleavage white; high reflectivity; isotropic isometric ductile; malleable
platiniridium hackly fracture isometric somewhat malleable
platinum no cleavage; hackly fracture white; isotropic isometric malleable; ductile; sometimes magnetic
schreibersite one perfect cleavage tetragonal strongly magnetic
selenium one good cleavage fairly high reflectivity; creamy white; pleochroic; very strongly anisotropic hexagonal electrical conductor; thin fragments transparent and red
silver no cleavage; hackly fracture brilliant silver-white; greatest reflectivity known; isotropic isometric ductile and malleable
sulfur
rhombic (alpha-sulfur) three imperfect cleavages; conchoidal to uneven fracture n = 1.957 orthorhombic electrical nonconductor; negatively charged by friction
monoclinic (beta-sulfur) two cleavages n = 2.038 monoclinic
nacreous (gamma-sulfur) no observed cleavage monoclinic reverts slowly to alpha-sulfur at room temperature
tantalum isometric
tellurium one perfect cleavage strongly anisotropic; white; very strongly reflective hexagonal
tin hackly fracture tetragonal ductile; malleable
zinc one perfect cleavage hexagonal though reported, existence in native form is doubtful
See as table:

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Universalium. 2010.

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