Examples of noninfectious diseases of animals

Examples of noninfectious diseases of animals
animal(s) affected name(s) of disease nature of disease
Hereditary diseases
pigs, calves, foals congenital absence of skin (epitheliogenesis imperfecti) complete absence of skin over parts of body; fatal a few days after birth
swine, cattle congenital porphyria (pink tooth) causes anemia, wine-coloured urine; results from a biochemical defect in the metabolism of a component (porphyrin) of the iron-containing pigment (hematin) of hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying protein of blood
cattle prolonged gestation (prolonged pregnancy) may cause a three-week to three-month delay in birth of calves, which when born are either large or deformed; a special type in Guernsey and Jersey breeds results in death of calves at birth
Metabolic diseases
cattle (rarely sheep and pigs) milk fever (parturient paresis) caused in lactating cattle by loss of calcium into the milk; low levels of calcium in blood cause muscular weakness, circulatory collapse, and loss of consciousness; treatment includes replacing calcium
cattle, sheep ketosis (acetonemia in cattle; pregnancy toxemia in sheep) occurs in lactating cattle following calving and in sheep in terminal stage of pregnancy (both times of increased need for carbohydrates); causes paralysis and death; complex treatment includes replacing carbohydrates
horses azoturia (paralytic myoglobinuria) paralytic disease of unknown cause; occurs during exercise following a period of inactivity; muscles degenerate; results in paralysis, dark-red urine
Functional diseases
cattle, sheep kidney and bladder calculi (urolithiasis) cattle eating range grasses with high silicon content may develop obstructions (solid masses containing silicon and protein) in urinary system; similar effects may occur with diets high in phosphate, in which case the solid mass contains magnesium ammonium phosphate and protein
cattle, sheep bloat (ruminal tympany) distension (caused by gases) of first two stomachs of cows; conditions preventing eructation (belching) of gases are major causes; occurs primarily when cattle overeat on leguminous pastures (alfalfa and clovers); often fatal
cattle, horses pulmonary emphysema (heaves in horses) acute form occurs in cattle, chronic form in horses; alveoli (small terminal air sacs) in lung rupture, reducing surface area for oxygen transport; causes not yet clear, but disease may follow pneumonia and allergic reactions
Nutritional deficiency diseases
most animals vitamin A deficiency caused by dietary insufficiency of vitamin A or substance from which vitamin A is formed (carotene); numerous manifestations in young and adult animals include night blindness
pigs iron deficiency caused by insufficient iron in diet; manifestations include severe anemia and poor growth
Diseases caused by chemical agents
pigs, cattle, horses bracken-fern poisoning fern contains thiaminase, which destroys vitamin B1 (thiamine), thereby producing a vitamin deficiency in horses and swine; in cattle the bone marrow is affected, and deficiency of blood cells and excessive hemorrhages occur
cattle, sheep, horses rye-grass staggers manifestations include either liver degeneration and photosensitization or uncoordination, convulsions, and paralysis; cause not yet established, but fungus on the rye grass plays some role in the liver degeneration
cattle (occasionally other animals) sweet-clover poisoning caused by eating moldy sweet-clover hay, which contains the anticoagulant compound dicoumarol; manifestations include extensive hemorrhages and severe blood loss after injury
cattle, sheep molybdenum poisoning results if pasture soil contains toxic quantities (three parts per million) of molybdenum, which replaces copper in body; symptoms include diarrhea, loss of hair colour, anemia
Diseases caused by physical agents
cattle hardware disease (traumatic reticuloperitonitis) objects such as nails and small pieces of bailing wire may be eaten with feed; perforation and inflammation of first stomach (reticulum) may occur; surgery sometimes necessary
cattle brisket disease (mountain sickness) occurs in cattle at high altitudes where levels of atmospheric oxygen are too low to provide oxygen required; manifestations include enlargement of right heart, congestive heart failure
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Universalium. 2010.

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