Selected breeds of light horses

Table
Selected breeds of light horses
name origin height (hands)* aptitude characteristics comments
Akhal-Teke Turkmenistan 14.2–16 riding, racing long neck carried almost perpendicular to body; long, slender legs; metallic, golden-dun colour is unique to the breed ancient breed; noted for its endurance and speed
American Paint Horse U.S. 15–16 riding two colour patterns—overo and tobiano—determined by location of white markings developed from quarter horse, thoroughbred, and paint breeds; versatile riding horse
American Quarter Horse U.S. 14.2–16 riding, racing, herding short, fine head with a straight profile; short back; long, powerful croup and shoulders; well-muscled thighs, gaskins, and forearms one of the most popular breeds; noted for its agility and quick bursts of speed; adapts easily to any riding discipline
American Saddlebred (American Saddlebred horse) U.S. 15–16 riding, light draft small head with long neck lying almost vertical to shoulder; short back; level croup with high tail carriage performs three gaits (walk, trot, canter) or five gaits (three plus slow gait, rack)
Andalusian Spain 15.1–15.3 riding arched neck; round and muscular hindquarters with low-set tail; mane and tail are often profuse and wavy influenced breeds worldwide; used in bullfights
Appaloosa U.S. 14.2–16 riding several colour patterns: snowflake, leopard, marble, frost, and blanket; black and white striped hooves descended from the spotted horses of the Nez Percé Indians; influenced by Arabian and, most recently, American Quarter Horse blood
Arabian (Arabian horse) Middle East 14–15 riding, light draft head profile is uniquely concave (dished), tapering to a dainty muzzle; wide-set, large eyes; long, graceful neck; short back; flat croup with distinctive high tail carriage has refined almost every breed worldwide; considered one of the most beautiful horses; noted for its stamina, excels in endurance competitions
Argentine Criollo (Criollo) Argentina 14 riding short, deep body; long head; heavily muscled one of the soundest breeds; descended from the Barb, Arab, and Andalusian; common throughout South America; noted for its endurance
Cleveland Bay England 16–16.2 riding, light and medium draft, farm work powerful and substantial build; short legs; always bay in colour oldest British breed; often crossed with Thoroughbreds to produce excellent hunters and sport horses
Hanoverian Germany 15.3–17 riding, light draft long, muscular neck; deep body; powerful hindquarters excels in dressage and show jumping; elegant, fluid gaits; developed from Holstein, influenced by Thoroughbred and Trakehner blood
Lipizzaner Austria (now in Slovenia) 15–16.1 riding, harness, draft, farm work long head with crested neck; compact, powerful body; foals are born black or brown in colour and usually mature to white-gray descended from Spanish horses; famous for its association with the Spanish Riding School of Vienna, where they are trained in difficult "high school" movements
Missouri Fox Trotting Horse (Missouri fox-trotting horse) U.S. 14–16 riding wide, deep-chested body; muscular hind legs noted for its natural, smooth, "fox-trot" gait; the horse canters with the front feet while trotting with the hind, producing little movement in the back
Morgan U.S. 14.1–15.2 riding, light draft fine head with arched neck; well-defined withers; long, sloping shoulders; muscular hindquarters descended from one prepotent stallion; noted for its versatility; possesses great stamina
Paso Fino Puerto Rico 14–15 riding medium-sized; small head with large, wide-set eyes; legs delicate in appearance noted for its natural, four-beat, lateral gait, in which the hind foot touches the ground a fraction of a second before the front; the gait is executed at three speeds: paso fino, paso corto, and paso largo
Standardbred U.S. 15–16 harness racing, riding long, sloping, muscular hindquarters; long, thick mane and tail; typically bay in colour primarily used for harness racing
Tennessee walking horse U.S. 15–16 riding solid build; sturdy, muscular legs; numerous colours and markings noted for its running walk, a natural, smooth, four-beat gait, in which the horse's head nods in rhythm with the rise and fall of its hooves; considered the most naturally good-tempered horse breed
Thoroughbred, also called English Thoroughbred England 15–17 riding, flat and jump racing large, expressive eyes; exceptionally long, sloping shoulders; fine-boned legs with small hooves; thin skin bred primarily for racing, also excels at dressage, eventing, and jumping; possesses great stamina and courage; bred extensively to improve other breeds
Trakehner East Prussia (now in Lithuania) 16–17 riding, light draft refined head with large, expressive eyes; long, elegant neck; strong, sloping shoulders considered one of the most elegant European warmbloods; excels at dressage and show jumping; influenced by Thoroughbred and Arabian blood
*1 hand = 4 inches (10.16 cm)
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Universalium. 2010.

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