Zhivkov, Todor

▪ Bulgarian political leader
in full  Todor Khristov Zhivkov  
born Sept. 7, 1911, Pravets, near Botevgrad, Bulg.
died Aug. 5, 1998, Sofia, Bulg.

      first secretary of the ruling Bulgarian Communist Party's Central Committee (1954–89) and president of Bulgaria (1971–89). His 35 years as Bulgaria's ruler made him the longest-serving leader in any of the Soviet-bloc nations of eastern Europe.

      The son of poor peasants, Zhivkov rose in the Communist Party and during World War II helped organize the resistance movement known as the People's Liberation Insurgent Army. After the war and the institution of a Soviet-sponsored communist government in Bulgaria, Zhivkov held increasingly important posts, including the command of the People's Militia, which arrested thousands of political opponents. In March 1954 he was made first secretary of the Central Committee—the youngest leader of any nation in the Soviet bloc—and, as a protégé of the Soviet leader Nikita S. Khrushchev, emerged as the strongman in the internal party struggles that followed.

      From 1962 to 1971 Zhivkov served as premier of Bulgaria and in the latter year was elected president of the State Council formed by Bulgaria's new constitution. In 1965 he survived an attempted coup d'état by dissident party members and military officers—the first ever within a communist regime. Zhivkov hewed closely to the Soviet line in both domestic and foreign affairs. He collectivized his country's agriculture, firmly repressed internal dissent, and cultivated close ties with Khrushchev's successor, Leonid Brezhnev.

      In 1989 when communist governments across eastern Europe began to collapse, a coup arose within his own party, and Zhivkov resigned all his posts in November of that year. He was subsequently expelled from the Bulgarian Communist Party in December and was placed under arrest in January 1990. Zhivkov was convicted of embezzlement in 1992 and sentenced to seven years' imprisonment. He was allowed to serve his sentence under house arrest on account of his failing health, and in 1998 he was reinstated as a member of the Communist Party's successor organization, the Socialist Party.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Zhivkov, Todor Khristov — ▪ 1999       Bulgarian politician (b. Sept. 7, 1911, Pravets, near Botevgrad, Bulg. d. Aug. 5, 1998, Sofia, Bulg.) led the Bulgarian Communist Party from 1954 to 1989, a 35 year rule that was the longest of any communist dictator. Born into a… …   Universalium

  • Zhivkov, Todor (Khristov) — born Sept. 7, 1911, Pravets, near Botevgrad, Bulg. died Aug. 5, 1998, Sofia Bulgarian politician. The son of poor peasants, he drifted to the Bulgarian capital of Sofia in his youth and, in the late 1920s, joined the Komsomol, the youth league of …   Universalium

  • Zhivkov, Todor (Jristov) — (7 sep. 1911, Pravetz, cerca de Botevgrad, Bulgaria–5 ago. 1998, Sofía). Político búlgaro. Hijo de campesinos pobres, en su juventud, después de desplazarse sin rumbo, llegó a Sofía, la capital de Bulgaria, y a fines de la década de 1920, se unió …   Enciclopedia Universal

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  • Todor Zhivkov — Infobox President | name=Todor Zhivkov Toдор Живков nationality=Bulgarian order=First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Bulgarian Communist Party term start=March 4, 1954 term end=November 10, 1989 predecessor=Vulko Chervenkov successor=… …   Wikipedia

  • Todor Zhivkov — Todor Christow Schiwkow (bulgarisch Тодор Христов Живков; * 7. September 1911 in Prawez; † 5. August 1998 in Sofia) war vom 4. März 1954 bis zu seinem erzwungenen Rücktritt am 10. November 1989 Staatschef von Bulgarien und erster Sekretär der… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Todor Christow Schiwkow — (bulgarisch Тодор Христов Живков; * 7. September 1911 in Prawez; † 5. August 1998 in Sofia) war vom 4. März 1954 bis zu seinem erzwungenen Rücktritt am 10. November 1989 Staatschef von Bulgarien und erster Sekretär der Bulgarischen… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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