Villafranca, Conference of

▪ France-Austria [1859]
      meeting between French emperor Napoleon III and Emperor Francis Joseph I of Austria that resulted in a preliminary peace (July 11, 1859) ending the Franco-Piedmontese war against Austria (1859); it marked the beginning of Italy's unification under Piedmontese leadership. Napoleon made peace without consulting the Piedmontese because he had lost control of his Italian policy. France had originally planned to take from Austria and give to Piedmont the two northern Italian provinces awarded to Austria in 1815, Lombardy and Venetia. As a result of fighting, the French and Piedmontese had taken Lombardy, but Venetia remained firmly in Austrian hands. In addition, Piedmont threatened to gain—and Napoleon tried to prevent—acquisition of Parma, Modena, and Tuscany, whose rulers had been overturned by Italian nationalism incited by the first victories over Austria. Napoleon also feared that France would be open to a Prussian attack along the Rhine if he remained engaged in a long war with the Austrians in Italy. Sixteen days after the bloody Battle of Solferino, the preliminary peace was signed at Villafranca 10 miles (16 kilometres) southwest of Verona in northeastern Italy. Austria gave up Lombardy, excluding Mantua and Peschiera, to France; an Italian Confederation was to be formed under the presidency of the Pope; Austria would be a member of the confederation by virtue of its Italian territories; and the dukes of Parma, Modena, and Tuscany were to be restored peacefully to their thrones after having been deposed by nationalist forces. It was understood that Lombardy would be ceded by France to its ally Piedmont. Piedmontese king Victor Emmanuel II accepted these terms, but his prime minister, Count Cavour, resigned over the compromise with Italian nationalist aims. The terms of Villafranca were confirmed in a formal treaty at Zurich (Nov. 10, 1859). Italian nationalists reacted very strongly against its terms, and by January 1860 Cavour could return to office without feeling bound in any way by them.

* * *


Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Parador de Villafranca del Bierzo Leon Province (Leon & Province) — Parador de Villafranca del Bierzo Leon Province country: Spain, city: Leon & Province (Province: Villafranca del Bierzo) Parador de Villafranca del Bierzo Leon Province Location This hotel can be found in the extreme north of the Region of… …   International hotels

  • Italy — /it l ee/, n. a republic in S Europe, comprising a peninsula S of the Alps, and Sicily, Sardinia, Elba, and other smaller islands: a kingdom 1870 1946. 57,534,088; 116,294 sq. mi. (301,200 sq. km). Cap.: Rome. Italian, Italia. * * * Italy… …   Universalium

  • Francis Joseph — German Franz Josef born Aug. 18, 1830, Schloss Schönbrunn, near Vienna died Nov. 21, 1916, Schloss Schönbrunn Emperor of Austria (1848–1916) and king of Hungary (1867–1916). He became emperor during the Revolutions of 1848 after the abdication of …   Universalium

  • Solferino, Battle of — (June 24, 1859) Engagement fought in Lombardy between Austria and an allied French and Piedmontese army. After its defeat at the Battle of Magenta, the Austrian army retreated eastward, where it unexpectedly met the allied army commanded by… …   Universalium

  • Check Wikipedia — Wikiproyecto:Check Wikipedia Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Esta página contiene de forma consciente fallos ortográficos. Los bots no deben intentar corregirlos. Atajo PR:CWPR:CW …   Wikipedia Español

  • Second Italian War of Independence — Part of the wars of Italian Unification …   Wikipedia

  • EMPIRE (SECOND) — Napoléon III n’est il pas un souverain méconnu? L’importance du second Empire n’a t elle pas échappé aux historiens? À première vue, la personnalité de Napoléon III souffre de la comparaison avec celle de son oncle. Mais plus que le fondateur de… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Claude Séguy — Claude Séguy …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Chronologie des relations internationales — au XIXe siècle Cet article retrace la chronologie des relations internationales du congrès de Vienne en 1815 au déclenchement de la Première guerre mondiale en 1914. Sommaire 1 Histoire des relations internationales de 1815 à 1830 1.1 Le nouvel… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Chronologie des relations internationales au XIXe siècle — Cet article retrace la chronologie des relations internationales du congrès de Vienne en 1815 au déclenchement de la Première Guerre mondiale en 1914. Sommaire 1 Histoire des relations internationales de 1815 à 1830 1.1 Le nouvel ordre… …   Wikipédia en Français

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.