also spelled Topraq-qalʿah, or Toprak Kale,site of a Khwārezmian (Khwārezm) walled city near modern Dashhowuz in Uzbekistan. The city was inhabited from about the 1st century BC until the 6th century AD, a period during which Khwārezm was an independent feudal state. A palace at Toprakkala, which may have been the capital of that state, contained lifelike paintings and sculptures executed in a style reflecting the influence of the cultures of India, Central Asia, and Asia Minor.
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Iranian languages — Major subgroup of the Indo Iranian branch of the Indo European language family. Iranian languages are probably spoken by more than 80 million people in southwestern and southern Asia. Only two Old Iranian languages are known, Avestan and Old… … Universalium