Tone, Wolfe

▪ Irish leader
born Jan. 20, 1763, Dublin
died Nov. 19, 1798, Dublin

      Irish republican and rebel who sought to overthrow English rule in Ireland and who led a French military force to Ireland during the insurrection of 1798.

      The son of a coach maker, Tone studied law and was called to the Irish bar (1789) but soon gave up his practice. In October 1791 he helped found the Society of United Irishmen (United Irishmen, Society of), a predominantly Protestant organization that worked for parliamentary reforms, such as universal suffrage and Roman Catholic emancipation.

      In Dublin (1792) he organized a Roman Catholic convention of elected delegates that forced Parliament to pass the Catholic Relief Act of 1793. Tone himself, however, was anticlerical and hoped for a general revolt against religious creeds in Ireland as a sequel to the attainment of Irish political freedom.

      By 1794 he and his United Irishmen friends began to seek armed aid from Revolutionary France to help overthrow English rule. After an initial effort failed, Tone went to the United States and obtained letters of introduction from the French minister at Philadelphia to the Committee of Public Safety in Paris.

      Arriving in the French capital (February 1796), Tone presented his plan for a French invasion of Ireland and was favourably received. The Directory then appointed one of the most brilliant young French generals, Lazare Hoche, to command the expedition and made Tone an adjutant in the French Army.

      On Dec. 15, 1796, Tone sailed from Brest with 43 ships and nearly 14,000 men. But the ships were badly handled and, after reaching the coast of west Cork and Kerry, were dispersed by a storm. Tone again brought an Irish invasion plan to Paris in October 1797, but the principal French military leader, Napoleon Bonaparte, took little interest.

      When insurrection broke out in Ireland in May 1798, Tone could only obtain enough French forces to make small raids on different parts of the Irish coast. In September he entered Lough Swilly, Donegal, with 3,000 men and was captured there. On November 10 at his trial in Dublin he defiantly proclaimed his undying hostility to England and his desire “in fair and open war to produce the separation of the two countries.” Early in the morning of November 12, the day he was to be hanged, he cut his throat with a penknife and died seven days later.

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Universalium. 2010.

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