Tolman, Edward C.

▪ American psychologist
in full  Edward Chace Tolman 
born April 14, 1886, West Newton, Massachusetts, U.S.
died November 19, 1959, Berkeley, California

      American psychologist who developed a system of psychology known as purposive, or molar, behaviourism, which attempts to explore the entire action of the total organism.

      Brother of the chemist and physicist Richard C. Tolman (Tolman, Richard C), Edward Tolman taught psychology at the University of California, Berkeley (1918–54). Although influenced by a number of other psychologists, including Edwin B. Holt (Holt, Edwin B.), his system perhaps owes one of its most obvious debts to Gestalt psychology, which strives to understand the components of mental life as structured wholes. About 1922 he began to assert that the stimulus-response behaviourism of John B. Watson (Watson, John B.) was too limited, because it selected the conditioned reflex as the unit of habit. Tolman advanced his system in his major work, Purposive Behavior in Animals and Men (1932). He suggested that the unit of behaviour is the total, goal-directed act, using varied muscular movements that are organized around the purposes served and guided by cognitive processes. His system remained behaviourist (behaviourism) by its adherence to objective observation and rigorous experimental procedures.

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  • Tolman, Edward C(hace) — born April 14, 1886, West Newton, Mass., U.S. died Nov. 19, 1959, Berkeley, Calif. U.S. psychologist. He taught at the University of California at Berkeley (1918–54). Although he was a behaviourist, he considered classical behaviourism too… …   Universalium

  • Tolman, Edward C(hace) — (14 abr. 1886, West Newton, Mass., EE.UU.–19 nov. 1959, Berkeley, Cal.). Psicólogo estadounidense. Ejerció la docencia en la Universidad de California, en Berkeley (1918–54). Aunque era conductista, consideraba demasiado reduccionista el… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Толмен Эдвард Чейз / Tolman, Edward Chase — (1886 1959). Толмен известен прежде всего своей теорией научения. Многие психологи называют ее «когнитивно полевой теорией», хотя в своих многочисленных экспериментальных исследованиях, проводимых преимущественно на белых крысах, Толмен всегда… …   Психологическая энциклопедия

  • Edward C. Tolman — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Edward Chace Tolman (1886 1959) fue un psicólogo estadounidense notable por sus estudios sobre la cognición en el contexto de la psicología del comportamiento. Contenido 1 Vida y carrera 2 Obra …   Wikipedia Español

  • Edward Tolman — Edward Tolman. Edward Chace Tolman (* 14. April 1886 in West Newton, Massachusetts; † 19. November 1959 in Berkeley, Kalifornien) war ein US amerikanischer Psychologe. Er wurde bekannt durch seine Arbeiten auf dem Gebiet der Lerntheorie und gilt… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Edward C. Tolman — Edward Chace Tolman (* 14. April 1886 in West Newton, Massachusetts; † 19. November 1959 in Berkeley, Kalifornien) war ein US amerikanischer Psychologe. Er wurde bekannt durch seine Arbeiten auf dem Gebiet der Lerntheorie und gilt als ein… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • TOLMAN (E. C.) — TOLMAN EDWARD CHACE (1886 1959) Psychologue américain, Tolman occupe une place originale au sein de l’école béhavioriste à laquelle il déclare se rattacher. Il commence des études d’ingénieur au Massachusetts Institute of Technology, puis… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Edward C. Tolman — Infobox Scientist name = Edward Chace Tolman box width = image width =150px caption = Edward Chace Tolman birth date = 14 Apr 1886 birth place = West Newton, Massachusetts death date = 19 Nov 1959 death place = residence = citizenship =… …   Wikipedia

  • Edward Tolman — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Tolman. Edward Chace Tolman (né le 14 avril 1886 à Newton (Massachusetts), mort le 19 novembre 1959), est un psychologue américain. Il s intéressa essentiellement aux problèmes de l… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Edward — /ed weuhrd/, n. 1. Prince of Wales and Duke of Cornwall ( The Black Prince ), 1330 76, English military leader (son of Edward III). 2. Lake, a lake in central Africa, between Uganda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo: a source of the Nile.… …   Universalium

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