Tjokroaminoto, Omar Said

▪ Indonesian leader
born Aug. 16, 1882, Desa Bakur, Madiun, Java
died Dec. 17, 1934, Jogjakarta

      highly influential Indonesian leader of the early Indonesian nationalist movement, closely linked with the Sarekat Islām (Islāmic Association), which he shaped as a political force.

      The Sarekat Dagang Islām (Association of Islāmic Traders), established in 1911 to promote the interests of Indonesian traders faced with growing Chinese competition, was reorganized as Sarekat Islām the following year by Tjokroaminoto. He broadened the focus of the group, greatly expanding its appeal, and organized it along Western lines. There were, however, substantial non-Western elements.

      Tjokroaminoto, who had a powerful personality, became widely popular among Javanese peasants. By 1914 he had become the central figure of a messianic movement, and the Sarekat Islām had taken on strong mystical overtones. He was not a strong leader, however, and he failed to reinforce his popular appeal with a clear, consistent policy. His concern for the need for unity against Dutch rule led him to make compromises, while other groups with more coherent programs were politically more effective. In 1918 he became a member of the Volksraad.

      In the early years of Sarekat Islām, Tjokroaminoto came into contact with a number of young nationalists, among whom was Sukarno, who became the first president of Indonesia. Tjokroaminoto tutored Sukarno, who also married his daughter. After 1920 Tjokroaminoto's fortunes declined. He was jailed by the Dutch in 1921 on a charge of perjury but was released in 1922. By 1923 Sukarno, who had ended his marriage, had broken politically with Tjokroaminoto and adopted a more radical position. They were later reconciled, and in 1926 Sukarno wrote for Bandera Islām (“Flag of Islām”), a journal edited by Tjokroaminoto after his release from prison. But his passive and conciliatory positions prevented Tjokroaminoto from ever regaining the power and influence he had held in the early days of Sarekat Islām.

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Universalium. 2010.

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