Taylor, Frederick W.
▪ American inventor and engineerin full Frederick Winslow Taylorborn March 20, 1856, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.died March 21, 1915, PhiladelphiaAmerican inventor and engineer who is known as the father of scientific management. His system of industrial management has influenced the development of virtually every country enjoying the benefits of modern industry (industrial engineering).Taylor was the son of a lawyer. He entered Phillips Exeter Academy in New Hampshire in 1872, where he led his class scholastically. After passing the entrance examination for Harvard, he was forced to abandon plans for matriculation, as his eyesight had deteriorated from night study. With sight restored in 1875, he was apprenticed to learn the trades of patternmaker and machinist at the Enterprise Hydraulic Works in Philadelphia.Three years later he went to the Midvale Steel Company, where, starting as a machine shop labourer, he became successively shop clerk, machinist, gang boss, foreman, maintenance foreman, head of the drawing office, and chief engineer.In 1881, at 25, he introduced time study (time-and-motion study) at the Midvale plant. The profession of time study was founded on the success of this project, which also formed the basis of Taylor's subsequent theories of management science. Essentially, Taylor suggested that production efficiency in a shop or factory could be greatly enhanced by close observation of the individual worker and elimination of waste time and motion in his operation. Though the Taylor system provoked resentment and opposition from labour when carried to extremes, its value in rationalizing production was indisputable and its impact on the development of mass-production (mass production) techniques immense.Studying at night, Taylor earned a degree in mechanical engineering from Stevens Institute of Technology in 1883. The following year he became chief engineer at Midvale and completed the design and construction of a novel machine shop. Taylor might have enjoyed a brilliant full-time career as an inventor—he had more than 40 patents to his credit—but his interest in what was soon called scientific management led him to resign his post at Midvale and to become general manager of the Manufacturing Investment Company (1890–93), which in turn led him to develop a “new profession, that of consulting engineer in management.” He served a long list of prominent firms ending with the Bethlehem Steel Corporation; (Bethlehem Steel Corporation) while at Bethlehem, he developed high-speed steel and performed notable experiments in shoveling and pig-iron handling.Taylor retired at age 45 but continued to devote time and money to promote the principles of scientific management through lectures at universities and professional societies. From 1904 to 1914, with his wife and three adopted children, Taylor lived in Philadelphia. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers elected him president in 1906, the same year that he was awarded an honorary doctor of science degree by the University of Pennsylvania. Many of his influential publications first appeared in the Transactions of that society, namely, “Notes on Belting” (1894); “A Piece-rate System” (1895); “Shop Management” (1903); and “On the Art of Cutting Metals” (1906). The Principles of Scientific Management was published commercially in 1911.Taylor's fame increased after his testimony in 1912 at the hearings before a special committee of the House of Representatives to investigate his own and other systems of shop management. Considering himself a reformer, he continued expounding the ideals and principles of his system of management until his death.John F. MeeAdditional ReadingFrank Barkley Copley, Frederick W. Taylor: Father of Scientific Management, 2 vol. (1923, reprinted 1969), is a comprehensive, historical portrayal. Sudhir Kakar, Frederick Taylor (1970), is a personality study.
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Taylor,Frederick Winslow — Taylor, Frederick Winslow. 1856 1915. American inventor, engineer, and efficiency expert noted for his innovations in industrial engineering and management. * * * … Universalium
Taylor, Frederick Winslow — SUBJECT AREA: Mechanical, pneumatic and hydraulic engineering [br] b. 20 March 1856 Germantown, Pennsylvania, USA d. 21 March 1915 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA [br] American mechanical engineer and pioneer of scientific management. [br]… … Biographical history of technology
Taylor, Frederick Winslow — (1856–1917) Gen Mgt U.S. engineer. Acknowledged as the father of scientific management, which is sometimes referred to as “Taylorism.” Taylor’s methods, recorded in The Principles of Scientific Management (1911), have been criticized as too… … The ultimate business dictionary
Taylor, Frederick W(inslow) — born March 20, 1856, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S. died March 21, 1915, Philadelphia U.S. inventor and engineer. He worked at Midvale Steel Co. (1878–90), where he introduced time and motion study in order to systematize shop management and reduce… … Universalium
Taylor, Frederick W(inslow) — (20 mar. 1856, Filadelfia, Pa., EE.UU.–21 mar. 1915, Filadelfia). Inventor e ingeniero estadounidense. Trabajó en la empresa Midvale Steel Co. (1878–90), donde introdujo el estudio de tiempo y movimiento a fin de sistematizar la administración de … Enciclopedia Universal
Taylor, Frederick William — (1856 1915) The founder of scientific management , who developed controversial theories of work study and industrial efficiency, in the conflict ridden American steel industry at the end of the nineteenth century. Taylor achieved national renown… … Dictionary of sociology
Тейлор Фредерик Уинслоу / Taylor, Frederick Winslow — (1856 1915). Тейлор создал систему научно обоснованного управления производством. Путем исследований организации условий труда и трудовых процессов (с использованием стандартизованного оборудования) он пытался установить связь между минимумом… … Психологическая энциклопедия
Frederick Winslow Taylor — (* 20. März 1856 in Germantown, Pennsylvania, USA; † 21. März 1915 in Philadelphia) war ein US amerikanischer Ingenieur und gilt als einer der Begründer der … Deutsch Wikipedia
Frederick Winslow — Taylor Pour les articles homonymes, voir Taylor. Frederick Winslow Taylor (20 … Wikipédia en Français
Frederick Winslow Taylor — Nacimiento … Wikipedia Español