Strachey, John

▪ British geologist
born May 10, 1671, Chew Magna, Eng.
died June 11, 1743, Greenwich

      early geologist who was the first to suggest the theory of stratified rock formations. He wrote Observations on the Different Strata of Earths and Minerals (1727) and stated that there was a relation between surface features and the rock structure, an idea that was not commonly accepted until a century later.

▪ British writer and politician
born Oct. 21, 1901, Guildford, Surrey, Eng.
died July 15, 1963, London

      British Socialist writer and Labour politician known for his contributions to leftist thought and for his peacetime rationing policies as British food minister.

      Son of John St. Loe Strachey, publisher and editor of The Spectator, Strachey broke with his family's Conservative allegiances and in 1923, while a student at Oxford, joined the radical Independent Labour Party, whose periodical the Socialist Review he began editing the following year. He also became editor of The Miner, published by the British Miners' Federation, and became known for his publicizing of the miners' cause during the General Strike of 1926. Elected to Parliament in 1929, he quit the Labour caucus in early 1931 and moved closer to Communism.

      Defeated in 1931, Strachey began writing and giving lectures, eventually breaking with the Communists with the outbreak of World War II in 1939. During the war he served in a succession of posts—air raid warden, public relations officer, radio commentator, and Royal Air Force wing commander. With the war's end, Strachey was returned to Parliament in the June 1945 elections and was appointed undersecretary for air in the new Labour government. In May 1946 he became minister of food and began the rationing of bread. He also carried out an unsuccessful scheme to mechanize the growth of peanuts (groundnuts) in East and Central Africa. After serving as war minister (1950–51), he continued in Parliament as Labour spokesman on defense and commonwealth matters.

      A creative and erudite interpreter of Marxist thought, Strachey published a number of works, including The Coming Struggle for Power (1932), The Nature of Capitalist Crisis (1935), The Theory and Practice of Socialism (1936), and What Are We To Do? (1938)—all works of his Communist period; then his moderately leftist A Programme for Progress (1940), Contemporary Capitalism (1956), The End of Empire (1959), and On the Prevention of War (1962), which offered proposals for dealing with tensions between the West and the Soviet Union.

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