Stern, Otto

▪ American physicist
born Feb. 17, 1888, Sohrau, Ger. [now Zory, Poland]
died Aug. 17, 1969, Berkeley, Calif., U.S.

      German-born scientist and winner of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1943 for his development of the molecular beam as a tool for studying the characteristics of molecules and for his measurement of the magnetic moment of the proton.

      Stern's early scientific work was theoretical studies of statistical thermodynamics. In 1914 he became a lecturer in theoretical physics at the University of Frankfurt and in 1923 a professor of physical chemistry at the University of Hamburg. Stern and Walther Gerlach (Gerlach, Walther) performed their historic molecular-beam experiment at Hamburg in the early 1920s. By shooting a beam of silver atoms through a nonuniform magnetic field onto a glass plate, they found that the beam split into two distinct beams instead of broadening into a continuous band. This experiment verified the space quantization theory, which stated that atoms can align themselves in a magnetic field only in a few directions (two for silver), instead of in any direction, as classical physics had suggested. (See also Stern-Gerlach experiment.) In 1933 Stern measured the magnetic moment (strength of a subatomic particle's magnetic property) of the proton by using a molecular beam and found that it was actually about 21/2 times the theoretical value.

      In 1933, when the Nazis rose to power, Stern was compelled to leave Germany. He went to the United States, where he became research professor of physics at the Carnegie Institute of Technology, Pittsburgh. He remained there until his retirement in 1945.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • STERN, OTTO — (1888–1969), physicist and Nobel prizewinner. Born in Sorau, Stern worked with einstein in Prague and Zurich. From 1915 to 1921 he lectured in theoretical physics at the universities of Frankfurt and Rostock, and in 1923 was appointed professor… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Stern,Otto — Stern, Otto. 1888 1969. German born American physicist. He won a 1943 Nobel Prize for detecting the magnetic movements of atomic particles. * * * …   Universalium

  • Stern , Otto — (1888–1969) German–American physicist Stern, who was born at Sohrau (now in Poland), was educated at the University of Breslau where he obtained his doctorate in 1912. He joined Einstein at the University of Prague and later followed him to… …   Scientists

  • Stern, Otto — (1888–1969)    German physicist and Nobel laureate, 1943. Stern worked in close collaboration with Albert EINSTEIN in Prague and Zurich before striking out on his own. In 1923 he was appointed professor of physical chemistry at the University of… …   Who’s Who in Jewish History after the period of the Old Testament

  • Stern, Otto — (1888 1969)    German physicist. He worked with Albert Einstein in Prague and Zurich. In 1923 he became professor of physical chemistry at the University of Hamburg. When Hitler came to power in Germany, he went to the US and became professor of… …   Dictionary of Jewish Biography

  • Stern, Otto — ► (1888 1969) Físico alemán. Fue premio Nobel de Física en 1943, por la invención de una técnica para estudiar los núcleos atómicos y las partículas elementales …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Stern — Otto …   Scientists

  • Otto Stern — was also the penname of German women s rights activist Louise Otto Peters (1819 1895) Otto Stern Born 17 February 1888 …   Wikipedia

  • Otto Robert Frisch — s wartime Los Alamos ID badge photo. Born 1 October 1904 Vienna, Austria …   Wikipedia

  • STERN (O.) — STERN OTTO (1888 1969) Physicien théoricien, lauréat du prix Nobel, né à Sorau (aujourd’hui かory, Haute Silésie). Otto Stern obtient son doctorat de chimie physique à l’université de Breslau (1912). Intéressé par les recherches d’Albert Einstein …   Encyclopédie Universelle

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