Simon, Herbert A.

▪ American social scientist
in full  Herbert Alexander Simon 
born June 15, 1916, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, U.S.
died February 9, 2001, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

      American social scientist known for his contributions to a number of fields, including psychology, mathematics, statistics, and operations research, all of which he synthesized in a key theory that earned him the 1978 Nobel Prize for Economics.

      Simon graduated from the University of Chicago in 1936 and earned his Ph.D. in political science there in 1943. After holding various posts in political science, he became a professor of administration and psychology at Carnegie-Mellon University in 1949, later becoming the Richard King Mellon University Professor of Computer Science and Psychology there.

      He is best known for his work on the theory of corporate decision making known as “behaviourism.” In his influential book Administrative Behavior (1947), Simon sought to replace the highly simplified classical approach to economic modeling—based on a concept of the single decision-making, profit-maximizing entrepreneur—with an approach that recognized multiple factors that contribute to decision making. According to Simon, this theoretical framework provides a more realistic understanding of a world in which decision making can affect prices and outputs.

      Crucial to this theory is the concept of “satisficing” behaviour—achieving acceptable economic objectives while minimizing complications and risks—as contrasted with the traditional emphasis on maximizing profits. Simon's theory thus offers a way to consider the psychological aspects of decision making that classical economists have tended to ignore.

      Later in his career, Simon pursued means of creating artificial intelligence through computer technology. He wrote several books on computers, economics, and management, and in 1986 he won the National Medal of Science.

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Universalium. 2010.

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  • Simon, Herbert — ► (1916 2001) Científico estadounidense. Fue premio Nobel de Economía en 1978, por su estudio de la toma de decisiones en las organizaciones económicas complejas …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Simon, Herbert A. — (1916–2001) Gen Mgt U.S. economist, and political and social scientist. Respected for his work on problem solving, decision making, and artificial intelligence. He began developing his ideas in Administrative Behavior (1946) …   The ultimate business dictionary

  • SIMON, HERBERT ALEXANDER — (1916–2001), U.S. political scientist; authority on public administration, Nobel laureate. Born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, Simon received his Ph.D. in political science from the University of Chicago (1943). In 1949 he was appointed professor of… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Simon, Herbert Alexander — ▪ 2002       American social scientist (b. June 15, 1916, Milwaukee, Wis. d. Feb. 9, 2001, Pittsburgh, Pa.), was awarded the 1978 Nobel Prize for Economics for his theory of decision making processes in economic organizations. Simon studied… …   Universalium

  • Simon,Herbert Alexander — Si·mon (sīʹmən), Herbert Alexander. Born 1916. American economist. He won a 1978 Nobel Prize for his research into the decision making process within economic organizations. * * * …   Universalium

  • Simon, Herbert (Alexander) — born June 15, 1916, Milwaukee, Wis., U.S. died Feb. 9, 2001, Pittsburgh, Pa. U.S. social scientist. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Chicago in 1943. At Carnegie Mellon University (from 1949), he taught psychology and later computer… …   Universalium

  • Simon, Herbert (Alexander) — (15 jun. 1916, Milwaukee, Wis., EE.UU.–9 feb. 2001, Pittsburgh, Pa.). Cientista social estadounidense. Obtuvo su Ph.D. en la Universidad de Chicago en 1943. Fue profesor de psicología y luego de ciencias de la computación en la Universidad… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Саймон Герберт / Simon, Herbert A. — (p. 1916). Саймон был пионером в деле создания информационной психологии и вел активную работу в таких областях, как математическая экономика и теория организации …   Психологическая энциклопедия

  • Herbert A. Simon — Herbert Simon Pour les articles homonymes, voir Simon. Herbert Simon Herbert Simon vers 2000 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Herbert Alexander Simon — Herbert Simon Pour les articles homonymes, voir Simon. Herbert Simon Herbert Simon vers 2000 …   Wikipédia en Français

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