- ▪ English pretenderSimnel also spelled Symnellborn c. 1475died 1535?impostor and claimant to the English crown, the son of an Oxford joiner, who was a pawn in the conspiracies to restore the Yorkist line after the victory of Henry VII (1485).A young Oxford priest, Richard Symonds, seeing in the handsome boy some alleged resemblance to Edward IV, determined to exploit him. In 1486, the rumour that the “princes in the Tower,” Edward's children, were still alive, suggested that Simnel might be passed off as one of them. A year later, the false report of the death in the Tower of another young Yorkist, Edward, earl of Warwick, changed the impersonation. Symonds took his charge to Ireland where the Yorkist interest was strong and where Simnel was crowned at Dublin as King Edward VI. Despite Henry VII's efforts (which included parading the real earl through the streets of London), the conspiracy spread.In June 1487, Simnel landed in Lancashire, supported by 2,000 German mercenaries provided by Edward IV's sister Margaret, duchess of Burgundy, and in company with a genuine Yorkist claimant, John de la Pole, earl of Lincoln, who had abandoned his temporary loyalty to the Tudors. The issue was settled in the Battle of Stoke (June 1487); Lincoln was killed, Simnel and Symonds were taken, the other Yorkist leaders disappeared. Symonds was kept in prison, but Henry VII displayed only sardonic contempt for Simnel, whom he recognized to have been a harmless dupe. Employed in the royal kitchens, the pretender made a modest career for himself, dying soon after 1534.
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