Shulḥan ʿarukh

▪ Jewish religious text
      (Hebrew: “Prepared Table”), a 16th-century codification of Jewish religious law and practice that is still the standard reference work for Orthodox observance. The Shulḥan ʿarukh, compiled and published by Joseph ben Ephraim Karo (Karo, Joseph ben Ephraim) (1488–1575) as a compendium of his larger work Bet Yosef (“House of Joseph”), contains opinions of various other codifiers before his time as well as personal decisions on disputed points by Karo himself.

      Moses Isserles (c. 1525–72; see Isserles, Moses ben Israel) was one of many Ashkenazi (German-rite) rabbis who severely criticized the Shulḥan ʿarukh for its overemphasis on the customs of Sephardic (Spanish-rite) Jews. Accordingly, Isserles wrote a commentary (called Mappa, “Tablecloth”) on the Shulḥan ʿarukh that was subsequently printed with Karo's work so that both rites would be represented. Thereafter, the Shulḥan ʿarukh became a universally accepted guide for Orthodox observance. A condensation of Karo's work, written for laypersons by Solomon Ganzfried (1804–66) and called Qitzur (“Abbreviated”) Shulḥan ʿarukh, gained wide popularity and has been translated into several languages.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

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  • Shulhan Arukh — Seph. Heb. /shoohl khahn ah rddoohkh /; Ashk. Heb. /shool kheuhn aw rddookh/; Eng. /shoohl keuhn aw reuhk/ an authoritative code of Jewish law and custom compiled by the Talmudic scholar Joseph Caro (1488 1575), the original edition published in… …   Useful english dictionary

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  • AḤARONIM — (Heb. אַחֲרוֹנִים; lit. the later (authorities), a term used to designate the later rabbinic authorities, in contrast to the rishonim , the earlier authorities. Although scholars differ as to the exact chronological dividing line between the two …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

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  • RESPONSA — (Heb. שְׁאֵלוֹת וּתְשׁוּבוֹת; lit. queries and replies ), a rabbinic term denoting an exchange of letters in which one party consults another on a halakhic matter. Such responsa   are already mentioned in the Talmud, which tells of an inquiry… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • CARO, JOSEPH BEN EPHRAIM — (1488–1575), author of the Shulḥan Arukh . Life Caro was apparently born in Toledo, Castile. It seems that after the expulsion from Spain (1492) his family left for Turkey or Portugal, but it is possible that they left for Portugal even before… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • EPSTEIN, JEHIEL MICHAL BEN AARON ISAAC HA-LEVI — (1829–1908), rabbi and halakhic authority. Epstein was born in Bobruisk, Belorussia. He studied in Volozhin under R. Isaac of Volozhin from 1842. At first unwilling to enter the rabbinate, he was persuaded to do so by the rabbi of his native town …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

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