Santonian Stage

      fourth of six main divisions (in ascending order) of the Upper Cretaceous Series, representing rocks deposited worldwide during the Santonian Age, which occurred 85.8 to 83.5 million years ago during the Cretaceous Period. Rocks of the Santonian overlie those of the Coniacian Stage and underlie rocks of the Campanian Stage.

      The stage's name derives from the town of Saintes in western France, the area surrounding which is the classic type district for rocks of this age. The Santonian Stage is represented in northern Continental Europe by the Granulaten Chalk, in Britain by part of the Upper Chalk, and in the United States by part of the Niobrara Limestone. Though it does not occur in the type district, the ammonite (ammonoid) Texanites texanum is widely used as an index fossil to mark the base of the stage in regions as distant as Texas, Japan, southern Africa, Madagascar, and the Middle East. The Santonian has been divided into several shorter spans of time called biozones (biozone), some of which are characterized by the calcareous nannofossils Marthasterites furcatus and Lithastrinus grilli. The planktonic foraminiferans (foraminiferan) Marginotruncana carinata and M. concavata are also used as index fossils for rocks of this stage.

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Universalium. 2010.

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