Salk, Jonas Edward

▪ American physician and medical researcher
born Oct. 28, 1914, New York, New York, U.S.
died June 23, 1995, La Jolla, California
  American physician and medical researcher who developed the first safe and effective vaccine for polio.

      Salk received his M.D. in 1939 from New York University College of Medicine, where he worked with Thomas Francis, Jr. (Francis, Thomas, Jr.), who was conducting killed-virus immunology studies. Salk joined Francis in 1942 at the University of Michigan School of Public Health and became part of a group that was working to develop an immunization against influenza.

      In 1947 Salk became associate professor of bacteriology and head of the Virus Research Laboratory at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, where he began research on polio. Working with scientists from other universities in a program to classify the various strains of poliovirus, Salk corroborated other studies in identifying three separate strains. He then demonstrated that killed virus of each of the three, although incapable of producing the disease, could induce antibody formation in monkeys. In 1952 he conducted field tests of his killed-virus vaccine, first on children who had recovered from polio and then on subjects who had not had the disease; both tests were successful in that the children's antibody levels rose significantly and no subjects contracted polio from the vaccine. His findings were published the following year. In 1954 Francis conducted a mass field trial, and the vaccine, injected by needle, was found to safely reduce the incidence of polio. On April 12, 1955, the vaccine was released for use in the United States. Salk's polio vaccine was superseded in 1960 by the live-virus oral vaccine developed by Albert Sabin.

      Salk served successively as professor of bacteriology, preventive medicine, and experimental medicine at Pittsburgh, and in 1963 he became fellow and director of the Institute for Biological Studies in San Diego, California, later called the Salk Institute. Among his many honours was the Presidential Medal of Freedom, awarded in 1977.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Salk, Jonas Edward — Médico y microbiólogo estadounidense, nacido en Nueva York en 1914. Consiguió, en 1953, cultivar los tres tipos de virus de la poliomielitis más comunes, inactivarlos con formaldehido y lograr la primera vacuna contra la poliomielitis. Medical… …   Diccionario médico

  • Salk,Jonas Edward — Salk (sôlk), Jonas Edward. 1914 1995. American microbiologist who developed the first effective killed virus vaccine against polio (1954). * * * …   Universalium

  • Salk , Jonas Edward — (1914–1995) American microbiologist Salk was born in New York City, the son of a garment worker. He was educated at the City College of New York and at New York University Medical School, where he obtained his MD in 1939. In 1942 he went to the… …   Scientists

  • Salk, Jonas (Edward) — born Oct. 28, 1914, New York, N.Y., U.S. died June 23, 1995, La Jolla, Calif. U.S. physician and researcher. He received his M.D. from New York University. Working with other scientists to classify poliovirus, he confirmed earlier studies that… …   Universalium

  • Salk, Jonas (Edward) — (28 oct. 1914, Nueva York, N.Y., EE.UU.–23 jun. 1995, La Jolla, Cal.). Médico e investigador estadounidense. Se graduó de médico en la Universidad de Nueva York. Trabajando con otros científicos en la clasificación del poliovirus, confirmó los… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Salk, Jonas Edward — (b. 1914)    Discoverer of anti polio vaccine. As a New York research professor at the University of Pittsburgh, Salk evolved the anti polio vaccine which bears his name and which is now in worldwide use. From 1961 to 1963, he was an adviser on… …   Who’s Who in Jewish History after the period of the Old Testament

  • Jonas Edward Salk — Salk, Jonas Edward Médico y microbiólogo estadounidense, nacido en Nueva York en 1914. Consiguió, en 1953, cultivar los tres tipos de virus de la poliomielitis más comunes, inactivarlos con formaldehido y lograr la primera vacuna contra la… …   Diccionario médico

  • Jonas Edward Salk — Jonas Salk Jonas Salk en 1988. Jonas Edward Salk (né le 28 octobre 1914 et décédé le 23 juin 1995), était un biologiste américain et inventeur du premier vaccin contre la poliomyélite …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Jonas Edward Salk — Jonas Salk, 1988 Jonas Edward Salk (* 28. Oktober 1914 in New York City; † 23. Juni 1995 in La Jolla (Kalifornien)) war ein US amerikanischer Arzt und Immunologe. Er entwickelte den inaktivierten Polioimpfstoff gegen Kinderlähmung (Polio). Salk… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Jonas Edward Salk — noun United States virologist who developed the Salk vaccine that is injected against poliomyelitis (born 1914) • Syn: ↑Salk, ↑Jonas Salk • Instance Hypernyms: ↑virologist …   Useful english dictionary

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