Saint-André, André Jeanbon

▪ French clergyman
born Feb. 25, 1749, Montauban, France
died Dec. 10, 1813, Mainz, Mont-Tonnerre, French empire

      French Protestant clergyman who became a member of the Committee of Public Safety that ruled France during the period of the Jacobin dictatorship (1793–94).

      The son of a Huguenot businessman named Jeanbon, André was a captain in the French merchant marine before he became a Huguenot pastor at Montauban in 1788. About that time he adopted the additional surname of Saint-André. He welcomed the outbreak of the Revolution in 1789 with the hope that French Protestants might once again be allowed to enter public life. Elected a deputy to the revolutionary National Convention, which convened in September 1792, he sat with the deputies from the Club of the Jacobins. The Jacobins seized control of the government on June 2, 1793, and on July 10 the National Convention elected Saint-André to the Committee of Public Safety.

      In October Saint-André was sent to Brest to prepare the French fleet for service in the war against Great Britain. He instilled revolutionary fervour in the sailors, instituted strict discipline, and created a corps of talented officers. At the same time, he organized the construction of warships and the manufacture of naval supplies. As a result, French ships were soon raiding British commerce, and in May–June 1794 the French fleet convoyed a large flotilla loaded with food supplies through the British blockade.

      Since Saint-André admired Robespierre, the chief spokesman of the Committee for Public Safety, he played no part in the events leading to Robespierre's downfall in July 1794. Saint-André survived the ensuing Thermidorian reaction against the Jacobin regime, and in 1798 he was made consul to Algiers. He was captured by the Turks in 1799 and held for three years. Appointed prefect of Mainz by Napoleon in 1802, Saint-André again proved to be one of the ablest administrators in the French government. He died of cholera.

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Universalium. 2010.

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