Roebuck, John

▪ British physician, chemist, and inventor
born 1718, Sheffield, Yorkshire, England
died July 17, 1794, Borrowstounness, West Lothian [now in Falkirk], Scotland

      British physician, chemist, and inventor, perhaps best-known for having subsidized the experiments of the Scottish engineer James Watt (Watt, James) that led to the development of the first commercially practical condensing steam engine (1769).

      Roebuck devoted much of his time to chemistry, especially its practical applications. Among the most important of his early achievements in this field was the introduction of leaden condensing chambers (chamber process) in the manufacture of sulfuric acid (1746). The substitution of leaden chambers for glass globes, which had been employed for years, revolutionized the production process and drastically reduced costs. In 1760 Roebuck became engaged in the manufacture of iron. He established an ironworks at Carron in Stirlingshire [now in Falkirk], Scotland, where he introduced various improvements in production, including the conversion of cast iron into malleable iron by burning coke derived from bituminous coal. In utilizing coke instead of charcoal, he revived in Britain a practice that had been introduced by the ironmaster Dud Dudley (Dudley, Dud) in the early 1620s.

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Universalium. 2010.

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  • ROEBUCK, JOHN ARTHUR —    English Radical politician, born at Madras; represented first Bath and then Sheffield in Parliament, contributed to the downfall of the Aberdeen Government, and played in general an independent part; his vigorous procedure as a politician… …   The Nuttall Encyclopaedia

  • Roebuck, John Arthur — (1801 1879)    Born in Madras, India. Brought to Canada at an early age, and educated here. Went to England in 1824 to study law, and called to the bar in 1831. In 1832 1837 member of Parliament for the city of Bath, and in 1835 agent in England… …   The makers of Canada

  • John Roebuck — This article is about the English inventor. For the 19th century British politician, see John Arthur Roebuck. John Roebuck FRS (1718 ndash; July 17, 1794) was an English inventor who played an important role in the Industrial Revolution and who… …   Wikipedia

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  • John Roebuck — (* 1718 in Sheffield; † 17. Juli 1794 in Bo ness, Falkirk, Schottland) war ein englischer Erfinder. Er spielte eine bedeutende Rolle in der industriellen Revolution. Leben und Werk Roebuck wurde in Sheffield geboren, wo sein Vater ein gut… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Roebuck — ist der Name von John Roebuck (1718–1794), englischer Erfinder Alvah Curtis Roebuck (1864–1948), US amerikanischer Geschäftsmann, Gründer von Sears, Roebuck and Company Daniel Roebuck (* 1963), US amerikanischer Schauspieler Kristian Roebuck (*… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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