Roebuck, John

▪ British physician, chemist, and inventor
born 1718, Sheffield, Yorkshire, England
died July 17, 1794, Borrowstounness, West Lothian [now in Falkirk], Scotland

      British physician, chemist, and inventor, perhaps best-known for having subsidized the experiments of the Scottish engineer James Watt (Watt, James) that led to the development of the first commercially practical condensing steam engine (1769).

      Roebuck devoted much of his time to chemistry, especially its practical applications. Among the most important of his early achievements in this field was the introduction of leaden condensing chambers (chamber process) in the manufacture of sulfuric acid (1746). The substitution of leaden chambers for glass globes, which had been employed for years, revolutionized the production process and drastically reduced costs. In 1760 Roebuck became engaged in the manufacture of iron. He established an ironworks at Carron in Stirlingshire [now in Falkirk], Scotland, where he introduced various improvements in production, including the conversion of cast iron into malleable iron by burning coke derived from bituminous coal. In utilizing coke instead of charcoal, he revived in Britain a practice that had been introduced by the ironmaster Dud Dudley (Dudley, Dud) in the early 1620s.

* * *

Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Roebuck, John — SUBJECT AREA: Chemical technology [br] b. 1718 Sheffield, England d. 17 July 1794 [br] English chemist and manufacturer, inventor of the lead chamber process for sulphuric acid. [br] The son of a prosperous Sheffield manufacturer, Roebuck forsook …   Biographical history of technology

  • ROEBUCK, JOHN ARTHUR —    English Radical politician, born at Madras; represented first Bath and then Sheffield in Parliament, contributed to the downfall of the Aberdeen Government, and played in general an independent part; his vigorous procedure as a politician… …   The Nuttall Encyclopaedia

  • Roebuck, John Arthur — (1801 1879)    Born in Madras, India. Brought to Canada at an early age, and educated here. Went to England in 1824 to study law, and called to the bar in 1831. In 1832 1837 member of Parliament for the city of Bath, and in 1835 agent in England… …   The makers of Canada

  • John Roebuck — This article is about the English inventor. For the 19th century British politician, see John Arthur Roebuck. John Roebuck FRS (1718 ndash; July 17, 1794) was an English inventor who played an important role in the Industrial Revolution and who… …   Wikipedia

  • John Arthur Roebuck — For the English inventor, see John Roebuck John Arthur Roebuck (December 28, 1802 ndash; November 30, 1879), British politician, was born at Madras, in India.After the death of his father, a civil servant, his mother s second marriage transferred …   Wikipedia

  • John Roebuck — (1718 – 1794), appelé souvent « docteur Roebuck », est un inventeur, scientifique, philosophe[1] et industriel anglais qui joua un rôle majeur aux débuts de la révolution industrielle, car ses recherches dans le domaine de la chimie… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Roebuck — may refer to:* Roe Deer, a type of deerPeople * Alvah C. Roebuck (1864 ndash; 1948), American businessman and co founder of Sears, Roebuck and Company * Henry Disney Roebuck builder of Midford Castle in 1775 * John Roebuck (1718 ndash; 1794),… …   Wikipedia

  • Roebuck-Klasse — Die Argo als Flaggschiff des Admirals Earl of St. Vincent auf der Station Gibraltar 1799 Geschichte …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • John Roebuck — (* 1718 in Sheffield; † 17. Juli 1794 in Bo ness, Falkirk, Schottland) war ein englischer Erfinder. Er spielte eine bedeutende Rolle in der industriellen Revolution. Leben und Werk Roebuck wurde in Sheffield geboren, wo sein Vater ein gut… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Roebuck — ist der Name von John Roebuck (1718–1794), englischer Erfinder Alvah Curtis Roebuck (1864–1948), US amerikanischer Geschäftsmann, Gründer von Sears, Roebuck and Company Daniel Roebuck (* 1963), US amerikanischer Schauspieler Kristian Roebuck (*… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.