Rae, John

▪ American economist and physician
born June 1, 1796, Aberdeen, Aberdeenshire, Scotland
died July 12, 1872, New York, New York, U.S.

      Scottish-born American economist, physician, and teacher.

      Rae was educated in classics, mathematics, and medicine at the Universities of Aberdeen and Edinburgh, and he distinguished himself as an inventor and natural scientist as well as an economist. In 1822 he immigrated to Canada, where he pursued a career as a schoolteacher. When he lost his teaching position (1848), he returned to the practice of medicine. His work as a doctor led him to the California gold fields, to the Hawaiian Islands, and then back to the United States in 1871.

      Rae is best known, however, for his achievements in economics. He advanced a theory of economic development that contained several elements that brought him largely posthumous fame. Prominent among these was his theory of capital (capital and interest), which contained two ideas that contributed to the development of the Austrian theory of capital (see Austrian school of economics). The first idea was that extra capital will increase total output only by lengthening the production process. The second was that current output is always preferred to future output. Rae's interest in capital goods and in natural science led to a detailed discussion of the process of invention. His work influenced the economists John Stuart Mill (Mill, John Stuart) and Joseph A. Schumpeter (Schumpeter, Joseph A.).

▪ Scottish explorer
born Sept. 30, 1813, near Stromness, Orkney Islands, Scot.
died July 22, 1893, London
 physician and explorer of the Canadian Arctic.

      Rae studied medicine at the University of Edinburgh (1829–33). He was appointed (1833) surgeon to the Hudson's Bay Company ship that annually visited Moose Factory, a trading post on James Bay (now in Ontario). Two years later he was made resident surgeon of the post, and he remained there for 10 years.

      In 1846–47, Rae set forth on the first of four expeditions into the Canadian Arctic; he surveyed Committee and Repulse bays and proved Boothia to be a peninsula. Returning to London, he was appointed second in command to Sir John Richardson on their overland search (1848–49) between the Mackenzie and Coppermine rivers for Sir John Franklin's lost Arctic expedition.

      In 1849 the Hudson's Bay Company placed Rae in charge of the Mackenzie River district. For eight months of 1851 he led another party in search of Franklin, travelling about 5,300 miles (8,500 kilometres) and mapping 700 miles of the southern coast of Victoria Island. Rae returned to London but in 1853–54 again set out for the Canadian Arctic, surveying Boothia Peninsula and proving King William Land to be an island. It was on this journey that Rae received from Eskimos at Pelly Bay the first news that the members of the Franklin expedition had perished of exposure and starvation.

      Rae retired from the Hudson's Bay Company in 1856 and lived thereafter mainly in London. In 1860 and 1864 he took part in land surveys for the establishment of a telegraph between England and America. Rae was known for his ability to live off the land and for his remarkable physical strength; during his Arctic travels he walked more than 23,000 miles. He was elected a fellow of the Royal Society in 1880. His writings include Narrative of an Expedition to the Shores of the Arctic Sea, in 1846 and 1847 (1850).

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Rae, John — (spr. rē), engl. Polarreisender, geb. 1813 auf den Orkneyinseln, gest. 22. Juli 1893 in Addison Gardens (Schottland), studierte in Edinburg Medizin, wurde Beamter der Hudsonbaikompanie, machte in deren Auftrag 1846–47 vom Fort Churchill an der… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Rae,John — Rae (rā), John. 1813 1893. British explorer who charted much of the Canadian Arctic coast. * * * …   Universalium

  • Rae, John — (1813 1893)    Served as a surgeon in the Hudson s Bay Company. In 1846 1847 made two exploring expeditions. Accompanied Richardson in his expedition in search of Sir John Franklin, 1848; and in 1851 commanded another expedition which examined… …   The makers of Canada

  • RAE, JOHN —    Arctic voyager, born in Orkney, studied medicine in Edinburgh; first visited the Arctic regions as a surgeon; was engaged in three expeditions to these regions, of which he published reports; was made a LL.D. of Edinburgh University on the… …   The Nuttall Encyclopaedia

  • RAE, John (1813-1900) — public man, artist, and author was born at Aberdeen, Scotland, on 9 January 1813, and was educated at the grammar school, Marischal College, and Aberdeen university. He graduated M.A. in 1832. He studied law and in 1839 went to Australia to take… …   Dictionary of Australian Biography

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  • John Rae (canadien) — John Rae (économiste) Pour les articles homonymes, voir John Rae et Rae. John Rae (1796–1872) était un économiste écossais, qui a surtout vécu au Canada. En 1834, il publie Some New Principles on the Subject of Political Economy Exposing the… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • John Rae (economiste) — John Rae (économiste) Pour les articles homonymes, voir John Rae et Rae. John Rae (1796–1872) était un économiste écossais, qui a surtout vécu au Canada. En 1834, il publie Some New Principles on the Subject of Political Economy Exposing the… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • RAE — ist der Name von Alexa Rae (* 1980), US amerikanische Pornodarstellerin Corinne Bailey Rae (* 1979), englische Soulsängerin Dina Rae (* 1976), US amerikanische Sängerin John Rae (1830–1893), schottischer Arktisforscher und Arzt Johnny Rae (*… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • John rae (journaliste) — Pour les articles homonymes, voir John Rae et Rae. John Rae (1845 – 1915) était un journaliste anglais. Il est surtout connu aujourd hui pour sa biographie d Adam Smith, Life of Adam Smith (1895). Il a écrit de nombreux articles pour The… …   Wikipédia en Français

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