Piscator, Erwin

▪ German dramatist
born December 17, 1893, Ulm, Germany
died March 30, 1966, Starnberg, West Germany

      theatrical producer and director famed for his ingenious Expressionistic (Expressionism) staging techniques. He was the originator of the epic theatre style later developed by the German playwright Bertolt Brecht (Brecht, Bertolt).

      Having studied at the König school of dramatic art and at the university, Piscator began as a volunteer at the Hof Theater in Munich; he became in turn an actor and a director. Working in Berlin during the Weimar Republic (1919–33), Piscator frankly used the theatre to convey radical political instruction. Although he was not a communist, he sympathized at the time with the German working class. A bold innovator, he used films and newsreels to enlarge landscapes and convey mass events, and he employed many optical, acoustical, and mechanical devices to create an experience of total theatre. His passion for machinery could be self-defeating: blaring loudspeakers, flashing lights, air-raid sirens, and revolving sets sometimes obscured his message.

      During the Nazi era, Piscator sought outlets outside of Germany. He traveled to Russia in 1934 to direct his only film, the well-regarded Vostaniye rybakov (“The Revolt of the Fishermen”). From 1939 to 1951 he headed the Dramatic Workshop of the New School for Social Research in New York City. He returned to West Germany in 1951 as director of West Berlin's Volksbühne. Among his sensational productions of that period were Rolf Hochhuth's Deputy, a study of the role of Pope Pius XII during the Third Reich, and The Investigation by Peter Weiss (Weiss, Peter), dealing with the Auschwitz concentration camp.

Additional Reading
John Willett, The Theatre of Erwin Piscator: Half a Century of Politics in the Theatre (1979); Erwin Piscator, The Political Theatre, trans. by Hugh Rorrison (1978, reissued 1980; originally published in German, 1929); Maria Ley-Piscator, The Piscator Experiment: The Political Theatre (1967, reissued 1970).

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Universalium. 2010.

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