Phillips, William D.
▪ American physicistin full William Daniel Phillipsborn Nov. 5, 1948, Wilkes-Barre, Pa., U.S.American physicist whose experiments using laser light to cool and trap atoms earned him the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1997. He shared the award with Steven Chu (Chu, Steven) and Claude Cohen-Tannoudji, (Cohen-Tannoudji, Claude) who also developed methods of laser cooling and atom trapping.Phillips received his doctorate in physics (1976) and completed his postdoctoral research at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In 1978 he joined the staff of the National Bureau of Standards (now the National Institute of Standards and Technology) in Gaithersburg, Md., and it was there that he conducted his award-winning research. Building on Chu's work, Phillips developed new and improved methods for measuring the temperature of laser-cooled atoms. In 1988 he discovered that the atoms reached a temperature six times lower than the predicted theoretical limit. Cohen-Tannoudji refined the theory to explain the new results, and he and Phillips further investigated methods of trapping atoms cooled to even lower temperatures.One result of the development of laser-cooling techniques was the first observation, in 1995, of the Bose-Einstein condensate (Bose-Einstein statistics), a new state of matter originally predicted 70 years earlier by Albert Einstein and the Indian physicist Satyendra Nath Bose. In this state atoms are so chilled and so slow that they, in effect, merge and behave as one single quantum entity that is much larger than any individual atom.
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PHILLIPS, WILLIAM — (1907–2002), U.S. editor and writer. Born in New York, Phillips attended City College and earned a master s degree at New York University (1930). He completed some graduate work at Columbia while an instructor in English at NYU. Phillips is best… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
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Phillips, William — (1731 1781) Born in England. Entered the Royal Military Academy at Woolwich as a cadet, 1746; promoted captain, 1756; commanded three companies of British artillery attached to the Duke of Brunswick s army, at Minden, 1759; served also at… … The makers of Canada
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William Daniel Phillips — William D. Phillips William Daniel Phillips (* 5. November 1948 in Wilkes Barre, Pennsylvania) ist ein US amerikanischer Physiker. Für das Kühlen und Einfangen von Atomen mit Laserlicht erhielt er zusammen mit Steven Chu und Claude Cohen… … Deutsch Wikipedia
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