Peano, Giuseppe

▪ Italian mathematician
born Aug. 27, 1858, Cuneo, Kingdom of Sardinia [now in Italy]
died April 20, 1932, Turin, Italy

      Italian mathematician and a founder of symbolic logic (logic) whose interests centred on the foundations of mathematics (mathematics, foundations of) and on the development of a formal logical language.

      Peano became a lecturer of infinitesimal calculus at the University of Turin in 1884 and a professor in 1890. He also held the post of professor at the Accademia Militare in Turin from 1886 to 1901. Peano made several important discoveries, including a continuous mapping of a line onto every point of a square, that were highly counterintuitive and convinced him that mathematics should be developed formally if mistakes were to be avoided. His Formulaire de mathématiques (Italian Formulario mathematico, “Mathematical Formulary”), published from 1894 to 1908 with collaborators, was intended to develop mathematics in its entirety from its fundamental postulates, using Peano's logic notation and his simplified international language. This proved hard to read, and after World War I his influence declined markedly. However, part of Peano's logic notation was adopted by Bertrand Russell (Russell, Bertrand) and Alfred North Whitehead (Whitehead, Alfred North) in their Principia Mathematica (1910–13).

      Peano's Calcolo differenziale e principii di calcolo integrale (1884; “Differential Calculus and Principles of Integral Calculus”) and Lezioni di analisi infinitesimale, 2 vol. (1893; “Lessons of Infinitesimal Analysis”), are two of the most important works on the development of the general theory of functions since the work of the French mathematician Augustin-Louis Cauchy (Cauchy, Augustin-Louis, Baron) (1789–1857). In Applicazioni geometriche del calcolo infinitesimale (1887; “Geometrical Applications of Infinitesimal Calculus”), Peano introduced the basic elements of geometric calculus and gave new definitions for the length of an arc and for the area of a curved surface. Calcolo geometrico (1888; “Geometric Calculus”) contains his first work on mathematical logic.

      Peano is also known as the creator of Latino sine Flexione, an artificial language later called Interlingua. Based on a synthesis of Latin, French, German, and English vocabularies, with a greatly simplified grammar, Interlingua was intended for use as an international auxiliary language. Peano compiled a Vocabulario de Interlingua (1915) and was for a time president of the Academia pro Interlingua.

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Universalium. 2010.

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  • Peano , Giuseppe — (1858–1932) Italian mathematician and logician Peano, who was born at Spinetta near Cuneo, in Italy, studied at the University of Turin and was an assistant there from 1880. He became extraordinary professor of infinitesimal calculus in 1890 and… …   Scientists

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  • Giuseppe Peano — (* 27. August 1858 in Spinetta, heute Teil von Cuneo, Piemont; † 20. April 1932 in Turin) war ein italienischer Mathematiker. Er arbeitete in Turin und befasste sich mit mathematischer Logik, mit der Axiomatik der …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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  • Peano — Giuseppe Peano Giuseppe Peano Giuseppe Peano (Spinetta di Cuneo (Coni), 27 août 1858 Turin, 20 avril 1932) est un mathématicien italien de la fin du XIXe et du début du …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Peano — Peano,   Giuseppe, italienischer Mathematiker und Logiker, * Spinetta (bei Cuneo) 27. 8. 1858, ✝ Turin 20. 4. 1932; Schüler von A. Genocchi, dessen Analysisvorlesungen er in Buchform herausbrachte, 1890 Professor in Turin. Peano trat zuerst als… …   Universal-Lexikon

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  • Peano-Axiom — ℕ Die natürlichen Zahlen sind die beim Zählen verwendeten Zahlen 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 usw. Oft wird auch die 0 (Null) zu den natürlichen Zahlen gerechnet. Sie bilden bezüglich der Addition und der Multiplikation einen (additiv und… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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